返回费城世界工业展一

时间:2013-07-12
      1926年,美国费城举办世界博览会,这是美国历史上的第一次世界博览会。这一年,适逢美国建国百年纪念年。它的意义,绝不只在美国首次获得了世博会的举办权;通过博览会,美国要向世界展示一个新兴工业国家的崛起,证明它已走出欧洲工业强国的阴影。美国要向世界宣布:一个美国时代即将到来。
      1926年5月31日,世博会开幕。当天,有5.5万人购票参观,另有近2.7万人免票入场。免票人中很多是世博园区的雇工,因为世博会场馆和布展还没有最后竣工,他们要在开幕日继续工作。本届世博会施工项目在开幕两个多月后才全部完成。出席本届开幕式的美国政府要员是国务卿弗兰克·B·凯洛格(Frank Billings Kellogg)和商务部长胡佛,而总统柯立芝于7月5日参观了世博会。
       8月初,世博会全部工程竣工后,商务部长胡佛向全美作如下陈述:“纪念美国建国150周年世博会竣工了,非常优秀而高贵,富有教育意义。所有的美国人都应该去认知它,去参观它。在过去的世博会上,美国的历史从没有如此细致地展现过。费城人民应得到全美的支持,因为他们为纪念美国独立150周年尽了最大努力。”
      国务卿凯洛格同时发表声明:“作为本届世博会管委会成员,我向费城人民致意。我相信全美都钦佩着费城所做的一切,我希望所有的美国人都有机会来参观伟大的纪念美国独立150周年的费城世博会。”

     1926年费城世博会,费城博物馆特别制作世界农业工业展览照片,其中包括5张中国照片,分别为上海纺织厂、轿子里的香港官员、汉阳钢铁厂、台湾茶船以及威廉·桑德斯拍摄的手推车。另有印度锡兰茶厂、澳大利亚牧羊业、美国矿产业等等共计44张,这是反映19世纪末20世纪初世界工业农业发展的绝佳影像资料。2016-38-102

1.《上海生丝厂》·中国上海      威廉·桑德斯

STEAM SILK REELING

SHANGHAI, CHINA

      This photography shows a room in one of the modern steam silk-reeling factories in Shanghai. The girls who do the work sit in four long rows. In front of each girl is a basin filled with warm water and on the floor at her feet is a basket containing the silk cocoons to be reeled.

      A number of cocoons, sometimes as many as twenty, are placed at one time in a basin. They float on the surface of the warm water and soon the gummy substance, which holds the fibers together in the form of a cocoon, softens.  Then a few of the tangled outer layers of silk can be pulled off and by careful handing the end of the strand which forms the cocoon is drawn up. The fibers from several cocoons are united in one strand, adhering to each other because of their gummy covering. This strand is run through the holes in a series of glass beads which serve as guides and thus to a revolving reel located in one of the large boxes which are at the sides of the room.

      Raw silk such as comes from these reels is exported in large amounts to Europe and America. As it comes on the market it is always twisted and fastened in a peculiar knot or hank.

      Manufacturers of silk fabrics first cleanse the raw silk to free it from some of the gummy material and then “throw” or twist the fiber into what, if it were cotton, would be called yarn, preparatory to weaving. Thrown silk is of two kinds—tram and organzine. Tram is loosely twisted and is used for the woof of silk fabrics. Organzine is much more tightly twisted, and in weaving forms the warp.

      The waste or floss silk consisting of the unreelable parts of the cocoons (the outside and inside layers) is spun into thread much as cotton is spun. Spun silk is cheaper than thrown silk and is made into an inferior grade of fabrics.
       这张照片拍的是上海一家现代生丝厂的一个房间。摇纱的姑娘们排成四排,每个女孩面前都有一盆热水,脚下的篮子里装着要抽丝的蚕茧,有时会多达20多个。蚕茧漂浮在温水的表面,不久蚕茧纤维之间的粘液将会被泡软,缠绕的外层丝质就可以脱落。每股蚕丝都可以由好几个蚕茧连接而成,取几个茧的纤维成一条线,用之前被泡软的粘胶相互粘合在一起。以一系列玻璃珠孔作为向导,每根蚕丝穿过后到达位于房间两侧的一个大盒子中的一个旋转卷筒中。卷筒上的生丝将会被制成丝结或者四卷,大量出口到欧洲和美国。丝绸面料的制造商首先清洗生丝,将上面的粘液彻底清洗干净,然通过捻丝的步骤被缠绕成纬丝和经丝两种形式。纬丝的缠绕方式比较宽松,主要用于未来丝绸纺织中的纬线。而经丝的缠绕方式比较紧,主要用于未来丝绸纺织中的经线。

      蚕茧中不能被卷成生丝的部分(最外层和最内层)如废丝或乱丝将会像棉线一样被纺成线。当时绢丝比厂丝便宜,被制成低档的织物。



2.《汉阳钢铁厂》中国武汉

IRON FURNACE

HANKOW, CHINA

     This photograph shows a typical modern blast furnace with its surroundings.  The furnace proper is the tower furthest toward the left.

     Into such furnaces iron ore, limestone and fuel (coke or coal) in carefully calculated proportions, are dumped at the top and fired.  The furnaces are kept running night and day for long periods—usually until they need repairing.  The burning of the fuel is assisted by the admission of blasts of air at the lower part of the furnace, and an intense heat is developed.  The air for the blast is heated in the six round towers shown in the picture, by the waste gases from the furnace itself.

     The limestone acts, in the great heat, as a “flux,” causing the ore to melt more easily than it would otherwise.  Metallic iron and slag are formed and while melted run down to the bottom of the furnace, whence they are drawn off, fresh ore, limestone and fuel being frequently added at the top.

     Pig iron, the product of such furnaces, is used in the production of articles of cast iron, or is converted into steel by one of many processes.

     Close by the furnaces, in the center of the picture, is a heap of iron ore, with a pile of limestone in front of it.  In the foreground, steel rails, the product of the rolling mills, are piled.

     Great numbers of iron furnaces, such as these, are operated in the United States and Europe.  Some are also located in other parts of the world where there are deposits of iron ore.  In such places as China the mills are generally under European or American management.

       中国汉口铁炉这张照片,展示了一个典型的现代高炉及其周围环境。炉子本身是最左边的塔。
       铁矿石、石灰石和燃料(焦炭或煤)按照精准的比例,从炉顶被倾倒进熔炉中并燃烧。这些高炉日夜不停地运转,通常直到它们需要修理才会停止。大量的空气由鼓风机从高炉底部吹入高炉中辅助燃烧,从而产生了强烈的热量。图中所示高炉右边六个圆塔中,准备被吹进高炉中的空气提前被炉子产生的废气加热。
       石灰石在高温下作为一种“助熔”,使矿石比在正常情况下更容易熔化。熔化的液体金属铁及其炉渣将会流到炉底,同时新的铁矿石、石灰石和燃料重新从高炉顶部加入。图中高炉的产品是生铁,用于铸铁制品的生产,或通过其它多种工艺转化为钢。高炉旁边,图中央的是一堆铁矿石,前面有一堆石灰石。图片前景中,堆放了轧钢厂生产的火车钢轨。
       这样的高炉,主要位于美国和欧洲,也有小部分位于世界上有铁矿石矿藏的地区。当时在中国,钢铁厂一般由欧洲或美国人管理。


3.《高炉和模具车间》

BLAST FURNACE AND MOLDING FLOOR

      In the center of this photograph is seen the lower part of a blast furnace.

      Iron ore, limestone and fuel (coke or coal) are dumped into the top of the furnace high above the roof of this shed. Heated air is supplied from towers, one of which is faintly seen in the background to the right of the furnace. The hot air is pumped through the large horizontal pipe which is seen running around the furnace, and from it into the smaller pipes which branch off from it, and then through openings called “tuyeres” into the furnace. This blast of air has the same effect on the fire as the small blast which a blacksmith makes with his bellows.

      An intense heat is developed in the furnace, under which the limestone acts as a “flux” causing the ore to melt more easily than it would otherwise. Metallic iron and slag are formed and while melted run down to the bottom of the furnace, fresh ore, limestone and fuel being frequently added at the top.

      When the molten iron and slag collect in the bottom of the furnace, the slag being lighter, floats on the top of the iron. The furnace is tapped and the slag is run off at one side, while the metal is allowed to flow through a trench in the middle of the floor and then through side passages into the pig molds. As is seen in the picture, these molds are simply depressions in the sand. The wooden paddles lying along the central trench are used to open the way for the iron through the sand into the side ditches, and to throw the sand over the pigs after the molds are filled. Of course, the whole sand floor becomes very hot when the molten iron is run out, and the workmen wear shoes with thick wooden soles to protect their feet.

      Some furnaces employ patented devices for molding pigs of iron and some transfer the molten iron directly to “converters” where it is made into steel. Most of the iron manufactured is first run into pigs on molding floors like the one seen in this picture.

       这张照片的中央是炼铁炉的下部分。

       铁矿、石灰石和燃料(焦炭或煤)从炉顶上方倾倒进高炉中,而炉顶远高于这个车间的高度。已经加热的空气是由塔提供的,在高炉右侧的后面可以隐约看到其中一个塔。热风是通过大型的水平管道进入高炉的,图片中可以看到其围绕着高炉运行,然后被抽进较小的分支管道,通过称为“风口”的开口进入炉膛。这种气流对火的影响类似于铁匠用风箱鼓风的效果。

       炉内的温度及其高,石灰石作为“助熔剂”,使矿石更容易熔化。金属铁和残渣形成后会流到炉底,新的矿石、石灰石和燃料又被添加到炉顶。

       当铁水和炉渣在炉底聚集时,炉渣较轻,浮在铁水表面。炉子被敲打,炉渣从一侧流出,而金属液体则被允许流过地板中间的沟槽,通过侧面的沟渠进入铸铁模具。如图中所示这些模具被简单地埋在沙子里。沿着中沟槽的木桨是用来打开铁水通往沟渠的道路的当模具被注满时还可以用来掷沙子将模具盖住。当铁水耗尽时,整个沙地会变得非常热,工人们会穿厚厚的木底鞋来保护他们的脚。

       一些熔炉使用专利设备铸铁,有些直接将铁水传送到“转换器”。在那里,被制造成钢。大多数铁被炼出来的铁,都会被浇筑到模具里成为生铁,就像这张照片中所看到的那样。



4.《手推车》中国    威廉·桑德斯

FREIGHT AND PASSENGER BARROW

CHINA

      In countries like China, where no railroads cross the interior, and the roads are so narrow and poor that wagons cannot be used, peculiar modes of transportation have originated. This picture shows an ordinary mode of transportation among the common people. It is noticeable that the wheelbarrow shown, has a wheel so large that the freight has to be loaded on both sides of the barrow and cannot be put in the middle, as on our wheelbarrow.

      The man who is pushing the barrow has it supported partly by a strap from the handles passing around the back of his neck.

      In the interior of China there are practically no roads, and outside of the towns, the paths are so narrow that a two-wheeled vehicle can rarely be used. Merchandise, which, in the United States, would be moved in wagons or railroad cars, is often carried on men’s backs.

      People frequently travel in chairs fastened to poles which are carried by four men.

      Both the men seen in this photograph wear sandals. The one who is riding, smokes a tobacco pipe with a very small brass bowl and a long wooden stem.

      在中国这样的国家,没有铁路横穿内地,而且道路又窄又穷,无法使用四轮马车,独特的运输方式就这样产生了。这张图中展示了当时老百姓中最为普遍的交通方式。值得注意的是,手推车中间有一个如此大的车轮,所以货物必须装载在手推车的两旁,不能放在中间。

      推着手推车的人,必须把捆着车把的绳子从脖子后部绕过去支撑着它。

      在中国内地,几乎没有道路,而在城镇之外,道路如此狭窄,以至于双轮车辆几乎无法通过。在美国,商品会用货车或火车运输,在这儿通常是男人背着。

      在中国,人们经常坐绑在杆子上,由四个人肩膀扛着的椅子上旅行。

      照片里的两个人都穿着凉鞋。乘客正在用烟斗抽着烟,烟斗是由一个很小的黄铜碗和一个长木棍组装而成。



5.《黄包车和轿子中国香港

JINRIKISHA AND CARRYING CHAIRS

HONG KONG, CHINA

       This photograph, taken along the water-front in Hong Kong, China, shows two kinds of vehicles which are in very common use throughout the coast cities of eastern Asia. In that part of the world human labor is very cheap indeed and horses are few.  People travelling on land therefore generally hire coolies to carry them in a chair or to draw them in a jinrikisha.  This light and easy-running carriage is of comparatively recent origin and was introduced by white men.  In China and Japan it is possible to hire a man to draw a passenger in a jinrikisha (or'rickshaw) for fifteen or twenty five cents a day.  The runners, who have great powers of endurance, live chiefly on rice.

       Jinrikishas can be employed only in or near the large cities, for in the country districts in China and Japan there are practically no roads and a wheeled vehicle of any kind is of no use. For this reason carrying-chairs are common.  Two types are shown in this picture.  The man in the center sits in one which consists of a mere seat, with a canopy and a foot rest, swung on long bamboo poles supported on the shoulders of two coolies.

       The lady with the umbrella sits in another which is like a chair placed in a light box, to which the long poles for the coolie carriers are fastened.

       The broad-brimmed hats, generally made of bamboo, are the characteristic headgear of the Chinese while the pith helmet is of the style commonly worn by white men in many warm climates.

       The English possession of Hong Kong is a small island about eleven miles long and two to five miles wide, near the coast of China.  It is one of the most important commercial cities in that part of the world and has an excellent harbor.  The buildings seen in the background are occupied by business establishments most of which are run by Europeans.  Their architecture of course is European and not Chinese.

       这张照片是在中国香港的海边拍摄的,它展示了一种在东亚沿海城市非常普遍使用的交通工具。在那里劳动力非常便宜,而马匹却很少。因此在陆地上的乘客,通常会雇用苦力坐轿子抬着或黄包车拉着他这款轻便的黄包车是由白人引进的,在中国和日本,一天可以用十五美分或二十五美分的价格,雇佣一个人力车。那些跑着拉人力车的人很有耐力,主要食品是大米。

       黄包车车只能在大城市或大城市附近使用,因为在中国和日本的乡村地区,几乎没有道路,任何类型带轮子的车辆都没法被使用。由于这个原因,携带椅子的轿子会非常常见。图中显示了两种类型,中间的那个人坐在一个只有一个座位的座子上,包括一个棚帐和一个脚架,座位捆在两个可以扛在肩膀上的长竹竿上。

       拿着雨伞的女士,坐在另一个像箱子一样的椅子上,苦力抬动时的长杆子系在箱子两旁。

       宽边帽一般由竹子制成,是中国人特有的头饰,而通常遮阳头盔则是许多温暖气候下白人男子戴的。

       当时的香港是英国属地是一个小岛,长约11英里,宽2至5英里,靠近中国海岸。它是世界上最重要的商业城市之一,拥有极好的港口。背景中的建筑物主要被商业机构所占据,其中大部分由欧洲人经营。而它们的建筑风格也是欧式,而不是中式的。



5.《茶船》中国台湾

 TEA SHIPS,

      DAITOTAI, TAlKOKU, FORMOSA

       The picture shows the arrival of a fleet bringing tea from the country districts to a Formosa port. In the country, the tea has been picked, fermented slightly, dried over a charcoal fire, and sorted. The tea is used in that condition throughout the country. It must be dried or "fired" again before it can safely be exported. The large sacks shown are therefore emptied at factories belonging to exporters. Here the tea is “fired” again for several hours, and repacked in boxes lined with thin sheet metal.

       The best tea, which is carefully put up in boxes of paulownia wood, is not exported at all, but is reserved for sale to the rich people of eastern Asia.

       Formosa tea is mostly a black tea of the variety called oolong.

       This picture shows well the type of Formosa boats. They resemble Chinese boats rather than Japanese, but the light bamboo masts and yards, the enormous single sail, and the wide boats, are common to most peoples of south-eastern Asia.

       图为一支船队将茶叶从乡间运到台湾港港口。在乡下,茶叶被采摘、轻微发酵,用木炭火烘干后分类。而茶叶在全国各地都是这样加工出来的,它必须干燥或“炒干”才能安全出口。图中所展示的大袋子出口后,将会在属于出口商的工厂中被清空。在那里的工厂中,茶又被重新“炒”几个小时,在盒子的金属板之间排列好,被包装起来。

       最好的茶是精心装在泡桐木盒里的,不会出口,而是留着出售给东亚富裕的人。

       台湾茶大多是乌龙茶。

       这张图很好地展示了台湾船的样子。他们更像中国的船,而不是日本的。但由质量较轻的竹竿做成的船桅与船柱、巨大的单帆和比较宽的船体,则是大多数东南亚人常见的设计。



7.《茶叶、花和果实》

TEA

LEAVES, FLOWERS AND FRUITS

       Tea consists of the prepared young leaves of a shrub (Thea sinensis, Theaceae), which is cultivated largely in China, India, Japan, Ceylon and Java.  The tea plant when growing wild reaches a height of ten to twenty feet, but in the plantations it is kept trimmed down to a bush from two to five feet high. 

       This picture shows the leaves, flowers and fruits of the tea plant.  Only from three to six leaves nearest to the tips of the young shoots are gathered by the tea pickers.  The older leaves, being tougher and more bitter, are unfit for making tea of good flavor.  In Ceylon and India, all of the young leaves are picked from a shoot at one time, while in Japan, the very youngest leaves and buds are gathered separately from the leaves which are slightly larger and a trifle older.  The youngest leaves make the finest grades of tea.  "Golden tips prepared from the very youngest tenderest tip leaf-buds sells sometimes in China for fifty dollars a pound. 

       The fruits of the tea plant contain seeds which, when pressed, yield an oil (tea seed oil), which is used in large quantities in China, some of it being exported to Europe.  The best quality oil is used for cooking and for a table oil, and the poorer quality for burning and for soap making. 

Green tea and black tea are made by different processes from the leaves of the same tea plant.  The processes of preparing the leaves differ considerably in various places, and naturally result in teas of different qualities and flavors.  In general, after the leaves are picked, if they are to be made into black tea, they are allowed to wither and ferment slightly, and then dried, usually over a charcoal fire.  Green teas are prepared by drying the leaves more quickly and not allowing them to ferment, as in the manufacture of black tea.

       Teas are classed commercially according to their color, green or black; according to the district producing them, as Japan, Formosa, Ceylon, China, India, Assam, etc.; according to the method of preparation, as "Gunpowder," "Imperial," "Hyson," "Caper," etc., Sun-dried, Pan-fired, Basket-fired, etc.; and according to the quality, dependent on the age of the leaf, as "Pekoe," "Oolong," "Souchong," or "Congou.” 

       Japan produces green tea, Ceylon, India and Java chiefly black tea, and both green and black teas are made in China.  The producing countries are also the largest consumers of tea. In these countries, it is the common beverage used by all the natives.  One can therefore easily understand that the quantity exported from a large country such as China, is only a small part of the total production.  Outside of the eastern countries which produce it, tea is consumed principally in the United Kingdom, the British Colonies, Russia, and the United States. 

       The United States is the only western country which prefers green tea, and it buys almost the entire export of green tea from China and Japan.  All other western nations prefer black tea and buy only small quantities of green tea for mixing with the black. 

       In the eastern part of China, tea is manufactured for export to Tibet and Russia in the form of bricks.  The merest refuse is used for the purpose, as the Chinese keep all the better qualities for themselves.  For the manufacture of these bricks, the dust, twigs and leaves are steamed in a cloth suspended over a boiler, and this softened mass is then placed in molds, together with a little rice water, and is consolidated, layer after layer, by a rammer, shod with a heavy iron shoe.  After the resulting cake, which is about three feet long, has been cut into bricks, it is ready for sale. 

       The trade of the three great western tea-consumers is distributed as follows: Russia takes the bulk of the Chinese tea, Great Britain almost all of the export of Ceylon and India and some Chinese tea, while the United States takes practically all of Japan's and one and a half times as much from China.  The great amount of tea consumed may be imagined from the fact that the world’s annual export trade in tea amounts to about 300,000 tons.

       茶主要来自于一种的灌木(学名:Thea sinensis,茶科)的嫩叶子,大量在中国、印度、日本、斯里兰卡和爪洼岛上被种植。茶树在野外可以长到10到20英尺高,但是在种植园会被修建成只有2到5英尺那么高。

      这张照片中包括了茶树的叶片、花朵和果实。只有嫩茶枝尖上的3到6片叶片才会被采摘来制成茶叶。那些比较老的茶树叶片会变得越来越苦涩,其风味不适用于制成茶叶。在斯里兰卡和印度,所有的嫩茶树叶片都会被一起采集,而在日本最嫩的叶片和叶芽会与稍微老点的叶片分开采集。最嫩的叶片会被做成最顶级的茶叶。由最嫩的叶芽制成的“金尖”在中国当时会被卖到50美金一磅。

      茶树的果实包含种子,可以压榨成油(茶籽油)其在中国会大量的使用,有一小部分也会出口到欧洲。比较好品质的茶籽油会用于烹饪和沙拉油,较差的会用于燃烧和制肥皂。

      绿茶和红茶的原料虽然都是采摘于同样的茶树,但其制茶的工艺是不一样的。由于制茶工艺的不同,所以导致了其品质和口味也是不同的。如果是要做成红茶,一般来说当叶片被采集之后,会让其稍微的发酵,然后再用木炭烘干。绿茶采摘后则需要迅速的干燥,不会被允许和红茶似的产生发酵。

      茶叶一般会根据下面的一些条件来区分在市场上的等级:颜色,如绿还是黑;产地,如日本、台湾、斯里兰卡、中国、印度、阿萨姆等;制作方法,如“珠茶”和“熙春茶”等;干燥方式,如晒干、炒干和阴干等;还有茶叶的质量,主要取决于其叶片的老嫩,比如“白毫”、“乌龙”、“小种”或“功夫茶”

      日本通常生产绿茶,斯里兰卡、印度和爪洼生产红茶,而中国绿茶和红茶都生产。这些国家既是茶叶的生产国,也是茶叶的最大消费国。在这些国家,它是所有当地人使用的普饮品料。但人们可以了解到,从中国这样一个大国出口的数量只是总产量的一小部分。在生产它的东方国家里,茶叶主要被消往英国、英国的殖民地、俄国和美国。

      美国是唯一喜欢绿茶的西方国家,几乎只买中国和日本的绿茶。其他西方国家更喜欢红茶,只购买少量的绿茶,主要用于和红茶混在一起喝

      在中国东部,人们对茶叶品质进行了挑选,把一些次等茶叶制成砖茶,销往西藏和俄罗斯。为了将茶叶制作成砖块的形状,会将茶树的枝子和叶子用布包裹起来,悬挂在锅炉上蒸,然后将软化后的纸业放在模子里,加入少许的米汤,用非常重的撞槌一层层夯实,切成大约三英尺长的砖形后出售。

      三大西方茶叶消费者的贸易分布如下:俄罗斯消费的大部分是中国茶叶,英国消费的是斯里兰卡和印度几乎所有的出口,和部分来自于中国的出口;美国主要是消费几乎全部日本出口的茶叶,而来自中国的茶叶会是其日本进口量的1.5倍。从这些茶叶消费信息可能是想象出来的,世界每年的茶叶出口贸易量约30万吨。



8.《插秧》日本

TRANSPLANTING RICE

JAPAN

       In the foreground of this photograph several women are seen engaged in transplanting rice.  The seeds are first sown in moist beds where the young plants grow up thickly.  When a few inches high they are taken up and carried by men to the paddy fields.  Here bunches of the young plants are scattered about.  Women and children, working in water a few inches deep, divide up the bunches and plant them in small tufts in the mud.  In the flooded fields the rice grows till the season is about half over, when the water is drawn off.  The dams seen in the picture between the fields, serve as paths as well as for the purpose of retaining the water.  Soy beans and other vegetables are often planted on these dams so that no space may be wasted.

       The hats seen in this picture are of the peculiar broad flat form worn only by women.  Men and boys often wear broad hats, but theirs are of a more conical form.  The women’s kimonos are held up by belts while they are working, so that they reach hardly to the knee.  On leaving the field, the belts will be loosened and the kimonos will drop as far as the ankle.

       在这张照片的前方,有几个女人在插秧。种子首先被播撒在潮湿的河床上,在那里幼苗浓密的生长。当有几英寸高的时候,它们被拔出搬运到稻田里。在这里,一捆一捆的幼苗被散落在稻田中,妇女和儿童在几英寸深的水里插秧。在淹水的田地里,水稻生长到大约过了一半的季节,这时水会被抽走。在稻田之间的土坝,既可用作道路,也可用于蓄水。豆类和其它蔬菜也可以种植在这些土坝上,从而不浪费空间。

       这幅照片中所看到的帽子,是一种只有妇女才戴的奇特的宽平形的帽子。男人和男孩也经常戴着宽大的帽子,但他们的帽子是圆锥形的。妇女的和服在她们工作时用皮带支撑着,因此她们很难碰到膝盖上。离开稻田时,腰带会松开,和服会一直下落到脚踝。



9.《收割水稻》日本

OUTTING RIOE

JAPAN

       Rice is one of the oldest cereals in cultivation and is, in southeastern Asia, the principal food of the inhabitants. The plant, Oryza saliva, Gramineae, is a grass which grows in swampy ground. It is cultivated in fields which can be kept flooded during the period of growth.

       There are hundreds of varieties of rice, varying in color, size, hardness, hairiness of the ears, and many other characters.

       The height of the rice plant varies greatly in different localities. In many places it grows to a height of only about three feet, as may be seen in this picture. In South Carolina the golden rice is usually from five to nine feet tall, and in cutting this, three feet or more of stubble are left on the ground. In India, in some districts where the water is deep it actually grows to a height of more than fifteen feet.

       Rice is extensively grown in the southern part of Japan, but very little rice is raised in northern Japan. This picture shows some of the level rice fields separated by narrow dams which are built to hold the water.

       During the growing season, the fields of rice are repeatedly flooded. Just before the harvest the water is drawn off so as to leave the land dry.

       The fields shown in this photograph are so low and level that the opening of the dams does not drain off all the water, and the soil is still moist. All the grain is cut by hand, not by reaping machines as in the United States. The sheaves are stacked up along the dams and on platforms todry. The grain is carried home either by men or on horses. Farm wagons are never seen in the country districts in Japan, as there are no roads.

       In many parts of tropical Asia rice is the staple food. Millions of people in China, Japan, and southern India live almost entirely on it. It is usually cooked by throwing into boiling water. This insures separate grains when done.

       In Japan a popular pasty dish, called "mochi", is made from a peculiarly sticky variety, called glutinous rice. "Sake", the Japanese national liquor, is also made from glutinous rice.

       大米是世界上最古老的谷物之一,也是东南亚居民的主要食物。水稻植株(学名:Oryza sativa,禾本科),是一种生长在湿地上的像草一样的植物。在生长期间,培育其的农田可以保持一直淹水的状态。

      水稻有几百个品种,可以按不同的颜色、尺寸、硬度、穗上的茸毛等许多其它特点来区分。

      不同地区的水稻株高差异很大,在许多地方它只长到大约三英尺高,就像这张图中所看到的那样。在南卡罗莱纳州,金色大米通常有五到九英尺高。在切割时,地上会留下三英尺或更多的残茬。在印度一些水资源丰沛的地区,水稻实际可以长到超过十五英尺的高度。

      在日本南部广泛种植着水稻,但在北部却很少种植水稻。这张图中稻田被蓄水而建狭长且矮小的土坝分割了开来。

      在水稻生长的季节里,稻田被不断的被水淹没。仅在收割之前,使土地干涸,而将水抽走。

      这张照片中所显示的田地处于低洼地带,以至于并没有把所有的水都排走,土壤仍然潮湿。所有的谷物都是用手割的,而不像在 美国那样用收割机。收割好被绑好的稻捆被堆放在水坝和平台上晾干。谷物是由男人或马运回家的。在日本的乡村因没有道路,从没有出现果农用车辆

      在亚洲热带许多地区,大米是主食。在中国、日本和印度南部,数百万人几乎完全依靠它生活。它通常是被扔进沸水里煮熟的。这样可以保证谷粒可以从谷穗中分离出来。

      在日本有一种叫做“莫奇”的流行的糊状菜肴,它是由一种叫糯米的特别粘稠的品种制成的。日本的国酒“清酒”,也是用糯米做的。



10.《稻谷脱穗》日本

SEPARATING RICE FROM THE STRAW

JAPAN

       This picture shows how the heads of rice are separated from the straw. The Japanese try to save the straw uninjured, so that they can use it for making mats or other articles. The workers stand in front of a number of long upright prongs or teeth through which they pull small bundles of rice stalks. This tears the grain loose from the straw. The rice is still covered with the hull and must be hulled and cleaned before it is ready for use.

       Notice the mats made of rice straw on which the heads of rice fall as they are torn off from the stalks.

       This is a typical scene outside of a farmer's house in a country district of Japan. The work is being done by a woman, a young man and a girl, probably the son and daughter of the woman. This is very characteristic of Japan, where all the members of the household do their share of the work.

       这幅照片展示了稻谷是如何从稻杆上被分离出来的。日本人试图在不破坏稻秆的情况下收获稻谷,这样他们就可以用它做垫子或其它物品。工人们站在有许多长而直立的尖齿前面,一小捆稻梗。这样将稻谷从稻秆上撕裂了下来。这时的稻谷仍被稻穗覆盖着,在准备食用之前必须将其脱穗和清洗。

      注意那些用稻杆做的垫子,当稻谷从稻梗上被扯下时,会掉在上面。

      这是一个日本乡村地区典型的农民院子的景象。这项劳作正在由一名妇女、一名青年男子和一名女孩完成,很可能是该妇女的儿子和女儿。这是日本的特色,所有的家庭成员都需要做属于他们自己的那一份工作。



11.《运往集市的稻草》日本

GOING TO MARKET

JAPAN

      In Japan, rice straw is a very important by-product of the rice fields, over fifteen and a quarter million tons being produced annually. It is utilized in various ways, such as the making of bags for holding cereals, roots, etc.; for making ropes and cordage; for making mats, raincoats, summer hats; for thatching roofs and other straw work. It is largely used as fodder and litter for cattle and horses.

      It has-recently been utilized in the manufacture of straw pulp which, mixed with other kinds of fibers, is largely used for making printing paper. Until a few years ago nearly all printing paper used for newspapers, journals, etc., in Japan was imported from foreign countries, but at present almost all demands are supplied with the home-made article.  There is every prospect that in the future it may be exported to foreign countries on account of the cheapness of the materials and the ease with which they are obtained.

      The varieties of uses to which this valuable fiber can be applied are illustrated in the picture, where the ropes which secure the load, the harness of the horses, and the shoes which they wear, as well as the sandals worn by the men are made of rice straw.

      The picture also illustrates the common mode of transportation in Japan.  The pack horses are heavily laden, and under the care of coolies are driven from place to place.

      The horse at the left side of the picture is loaded with bundles of twigs to be sold for kindling.  The farmer will probably exchange them at the town for fertilizer which he will take home in the empty kegs.  The other horse is loaded with bales of charcoal wrapped up in rice straw. Charcoal is the common fuel used for cooking and heating in Japan. For heating rooms, the charcoal is generally burned in braziers and not in such stoves as are used in America.

      This picture must have been taken near one of the large cities of Japan, for good roads such as this one, wide enough for a wheeled vehicle, are very uncommon except near the cities.

       在日本稻草是稻田的重要副产品,年产量超过150.25万吨。有很多用途,比如用于制作袋子用于保存谷物或根茎类;用于制作索;用于制作子、雨衣和帽子;当作覆盖屋的草料。最重要的是当作牛和马的饲料与

       近年来,它被广泛应用于草浆的生产中。草浆与其它纤维混合后,广泛地用于印刷纸的生产。直到几年前,日本几乎所有用于报纸、期刊等的印刷用纸,都是从国外进口的,但目前几乎所有的需求都是国产的纸来供应。由于材料价格低廉,而且容易获得,今后很有可能将其出口到日本国外。

       图中的一些应用就说明了这种纤维是多么的有价值,其中固定稻草的绳索、马匹的缰绳、马匹所穿的鞋,以及人们穿的凉鞋都是用稻草制成的。

       图中还展示了日本的传统的公共交通模式。用马群来背负着沉重的货物,在苦力的照料下,被从一个地方赶到另一个地方。

       照片中左的那匹马满载着一捆柴火,准备卖给人烧火。农夫很可能会在城里换取肥料,然后把肥料装在空桶中带回家。另一匹马驮着用稻草包裹着的木炭包,木炭是日本常见的烹饪和取暖燃料。用木炭取暖的话,通常是放在火盆里燃烧的,而不像在美国使用的是炉子。

         这张照片一定是在日本的一个大城市附近拍摄的,因为像这么状况好的道路,足够两轮车的宽度,除了在城市附近是很少见的。



12.《养蚕》日本

FEEDING SILKWORMS

JAPAN

       Silk culture constitutes the most wide-spread and important home industry in many parts of Japan. In most cases it is carried on by women and children in connection with other agricultural employments. It is one of the chief sources of income to those living in the farming districts. Where it is carried on to a great extent, one perceives, from the large, clean houses and the beautiful mats, how it has improved the condition of the people. No other branch of agricultural industry in Japan gives evidence of an equally beneficial influence.

      When the time of hatching draws near, paper boards covered with silkworm eggs are brought into the hatching-room, or to a shady spot in the open air. The silkworm is developed in the egg slowly, as the warmth increases. Hatching is hastened by artificial heat increased gradually, not above 77°F When the worms appear, they are from time to time transferred to trays which have been covered with delicate chopped leaves. This removal is performed either by gently striking the under side of the cards, or by stroking with a feather, or by laying over the eggs a sheet of paper, punctured here and there and bestrewn on the top with tender mulberry leaves. The worms that have crawled out, reach the food through the holes in the paper, and can easily be carried off with it to the hurdles. The worms are generally kept on trays of woven bamboo over which fresh mulberry leaves are spread. These bamboo trays are commonly supported on bamboo framework at the sides of the room.  After twenty-four days or more, the worm attains its full size. In this time it grows from a worm so minute that it can scarcely be seen, to a length of two end a half inches or more and a diameter of about three-eighths of an inch.

      If the feeding is carefully conducted, the bed must be cleaned daily, except during the times when the worms are casting or shedding their skins. It is a point in careful breeding to keep together worms of the same age and condition, which go through their castings simultaneously and finally spin themselves in, and go into the pupa stage at about the same time. On this account, worms that are hatched a day earlier or later than the great majority are separated and tended on special beds.

      When the change of akin is drawing near, the worm stops feeding and becomes somewhat brighter, smoother and translucent Its head swells and it raises itself up, with its head on high. In this position it falls into a lethargic state, which must not be disturbed till the casting is over. When its development is healthy and normal, this lasts one day. Then the worm turns to its food with new and strengthened appetite, its capacity being much increased.

      When it begins to spin, the silkworm chooses a corner, the fork of a twig or some such retaining point for its first thread. The breeder assists it in this inclination, employing various measures to promote the formation of cocoons One of the simplest and most practical is to spread rape-stalks over the bed of the caterpillars about to spin, the numerous light branches of which offer them facilities for fastening their first threads.

      养蚕是日本许多地区最广泛、最重要的家庭产业。在大多数情况下,由同时也从事其它农业活动的妇女及其子女承担。它是居住在农业区的农民主要收入来源之一。在很大程度上,从照片中宽敞而干净的房子,以及精致的垫子中看出,它是如何改善人民的生活状况的。在日本农业其它的分支中,还没有足够证据表明可以提供类似的有益的影响。

      当孵化时间临近时,铺满蚕种的纸板被送进孵化室或到露天阴凉的地方时,随着气温的增高,蚕蛹在蚕种中慢慢发育。人为的加热加速了孵化的进程,但是不能超过25度。当蠕虫出现时,它们不时地被转移到由精致切碎的叶子覆盖的托盘上。将蠕虫转移的方法有好几种,比如通过轻轻地敲打纸板的下方,或者用一根羽毛捋下。还可以在蚕种上铺上一张纸,到处穿孔,再在上面撒上细嫩桑椹叶子。这样蚕从纸上的洞里爬上来吃食物,很容易把它们放到架子上。这些蠕虫一般呆在竹托盘上,新鲜的桑椹叶子散落在上面。这些竹托盘被支撑在房间墙边的竹架上。再过24天或更多,蠕虫就长到它的成年尺寸。在这段时间里,它从一条几乎看不见的小虫子,长到2.5英寸或更长,直径约为3/8英寸的虫子。

      如果要小心喂食的话,蚕床必须每天打扫,除非是蚕虫正在蜕皮的时候。这是一个关键的时期,来保证蚕虫们是同样的年龄和身体状况,以便让它们大约在同一时间进入蚕蛹阶段。由于这个原因,不同于其它大多数蠕虫,早一天或晚一天孵出的蠕虫将会被分开放到特殊的竹床上分开照顾。

      当蜕皮临近时,蚕虫停止进食,变得更加明亮、光滑和半透明。它的头部膨胀并自己抬了起来,从而陷入了一种昏昏欲睡的状,在蜕皮结束之前,这种状态是不能被打扰的。如果蚕虫的生长是健康和正常的,这样的过程会持续一天。蜕皮结束后,蚕虫带着它新增强的食欲会寻找食物,其胃口得到了非常大的提升。

      但蚕虫开始吐司时,它会爬向一个角落,选择了一个角,比如一根树枝的分叉点,作为其第一根丝的保持点。这种习惯会得到饲养者的帮助,饲养者还会采取各种措施促进蚕茧的形成。最简单和最实用的方法之一是,在即将吐丝的蚕虫的床上铺上油菜杆,其众多的光树枝为它们提供了固定第一根线的位置。



13.《蚕茧抽丝》日本

REELING SILK

JAPAN

       The cocoons of the common silkworm have the unbroken thread of which they are made so wound around that it may be reeled off without breaking.  Some of the best cocoons are picked out for hatching.  The moths which emerge lay eggs for the next season and die. The other cocoons are “choked”, or killed by steam, dry heat, or direct sunlight.  Certain parts of the cocoons have the thread so tangled that it cannot be reeled off. These parts are the loose outer threads, and the inside layers.  These, together with the pierced, unfinished and double cocoons, all of which cannot be unreeled, are sold as “noshi” or “matawa” (floss silk). This is used in Japan as stuffing for clothes and quilts, and for making “noshi-ito” or schapp silk, which is spun like wool or cotton and is inferior to reeled raw silk in hanks.  Only ten to twelve percent of the weight of cocoons are reel able silk. Japanese often reel their silk at home, but they have also large reeling establishments. The persons employed in unwinding silk are mostly women.  The power to turn the reel is usually furnished by the pressure of the operator's foot upon a pedal, worked in a manner similar to a sewing machine. The cocoons are placed in a copper basin filled with water heated to near the boiling point.  They are then moved about, so that the gum which fastens the threads together may become uniformly and thoroughly softened.  Next they are beaten with a small birchen broom having the tips split, so that the loose threads readily fasten to them.

       After beating a short time, the operator gets all the cocoons fastened, and taking a bundle of threads, shakes the cocoons until each hangs by a single thread. She now takes up five or more threads, according to the quality of silk wanted, unites them and passes them through an eyelet or guide.  A second strand is made in the same way.  These two strands are then brought together, twisted several times, separated above the twist and passed through a ringlet by which they are led to the reel.

       The strand, held in the right hand of the operator, passes through an eyelet on the crosspiece just above the basin, whence it is carried to the ring on the short crosspiece near the top of the frame. From here it is brought down to the second crosspiece above the basin.  After being twisted about the ascending strand, it is taken to an eyelet on the long crosspiece at the top of the frame and then to the reel.  The object of the crossing is to round, smooth, and condense the separate threads into one compact strand.  Uniformity of the threads depends upon the skill of the operator.  When the water is too hot the silk rises in locks, when too cold it unwinds with difficulty. The operator is supplied with a skimmer to remove all refuse matter from the basin.

       Before the skeins which come from the reel are ready for the manufacturer they must be cleansed.  The fiber is finally run on reels of large diameter and taken off and twisted into a peculiar knot or hank.  This is known as raw silk and is shipped in large quantities from China, Japan and India, to the United States and European countries.  It is produced also in many countries bordering the Mediterranean.

       In Japan and China there are now large factories with machinery run by steam power where silk is reeled from the cocoons.  These establishments are similar to those in Italy and other Mediterranean countries.

       普通蚕的茧,是由一根完整的缠绕在一起,它可以完整地被抽出来。一些最好的茧,常常会被挑选出来孵化,成为下个季节产卵的飞蛾,其它茧则被闷死,或通过蒸汽、干热或阳光直射所杀死。茧会有某些部分的线较乱,以至于不能被抽成,比如不牢固的外丝和内层。这些以及有穿孔的、不完好的和双宫茧这些不能被绕丝,会被当作乱丝给卖掉。在日本主要被用于填充衣裳和被子,或者被做成绢丝绢丝的纺织方法有点类似于羊毛和棉线,档次比起绕好的生蚕丝差一些。蚕茧的重量中只有10%-12%的是可缠绕的茧丝。许多日本人会在家里,但他们也有大型绕丝机构。从事解工作的人大多是妇女。卷轴转动的驱动力通常来自丝工的踩踏板,类似于缝纫机。蚕茧被放在盛满滚烫热水的里不断地搅动这样可以将固定在一起的粘液均匀而底地。然后用裂开的敲打,这样松了的就很容易系在一起。

      敲打一小段时间后,把所有的上,拿起一捆摇晃,直到每一个都挂在一根蚕上。根据需要蚕线,挑出5根甚至更多的,合并在一起穿孔眼。照片中第二个线缕也是做出来的。两个线缕被放到一起,缠绕好几次,然后在缠绕处的上方分开,并穿过圆环,然后通向卷

      丝右手中握着的线缕,先穿盆上方横木的孔眼,再穿靠近框架的第二根短横木的孔眼,然后从向下回到并穿过高于盆的第二根横木的孔眼。与上升的线缕缠绕后,最后穿端的横木的孔眼,被送往卷交叉穿来穿去的将散开的蚕丝一根丰的、光滑的、凑的线蚕线粗细是否均匀取决于丝工的技术。如果水太烫,则茧丝之间容易打结锁死,但如果水太凉,则蚕茧解开却又十分的困难。丝工会用网勺将盆里的废物清理出去。

       绞好的蚕线再交给丝绸织造商之前还需要被清洗干净。最后蚕线会缠绕在一个大直径的卷盘上,取下后拧成一个线节或者线团。众所周知的生被大量中国、日本、印度运往欧美国家,许多与地中海接壤的国家也可以生产蚕丝。

       在日本和中国,现在有许多大型工厂用蒸汽机来驱动机械绕丝,类似于意大利和其它地中海国家的工厂。



14.《手足织机》日本

WEAVING

JAPAN

       The loom shown in this photograph is one of the primitive hand-and-foot looms in common use in Japan. Similar looms are used in all parts of the world where hand weaving is done.

      The older woman is engaged in weaving silk goods. She holds a shuttle in her right hand and works the treadles with her feet. In this loom the treadles are made of bamboo.

      The warp, or lengthwise threads of the fabric to be woven, are carefully wound on the warp beam, seen at the right end of the loom. This beam holds the warp taut, and is kept from turning by a peg which catches one arm of the cross on the end of the beam. This cross and its peg show plainly in the picture. From the warp beam the threads pass up and over the long table-like end of the loom. Here they are divided and crossed by the two leash rods which the younger woman holds. From the leash rods the warp threads pass through the heddles. These are made of loops of yarn arranged on small frames and are suspended, each by two cords from a pulley at the top of the machine. Each of the two heddles is arranged to engage alternate threads of the warp, and thus as one treadle is raised and the other lowered, alternate threads of the warp are raised. The shuttle is passed between the two sets of warp threads and then the treadles are reversed. This throws up the warp threads which were below and pulls down the warp threads which were above, and the shuttle is again passed between the two sets of warp threads. After each passage of the shuttle, the reed on which the weaver has her left hand is drawn toward the operator, drawing the thread up tight against the part of the cloth which had been previously woven. This makes the cloth one thread longer. Then the reed is thrown forward, treadles reversed, the shuttle thrown, and the reed again drawn toward the weaver.

      As the cloth is woven, it is from time to time rolled up on the cloth beam, the round end of which can be seen near the weaver’s right hand. At the same time, a corresponding length of warp threads is unwound from the warp beam.

      There is no essential difference between the plan on which this loom is constructed and the plan of modern power looms, such as are found in factories in almost all parts of the world.

     Such a loom as this weaves a plain fabric. Stripes can be obtained by bands of different colors in the warp threads. Plaids can be woven by varying the color of threads used in the woof as well as in the warp. This is usually done by the use of two or more shuttles. Fabrics such as satin, twilled and figured goods, velvet, etc., require much more complicated looms. In some of these there are many heddles and two or more sets of warp threads.

       In a modern weaving mill there are often hundreds of power looms, worked by steam power, running at the same time. AIII the work is done automatically and the attendants merely supply the yarn, straighten out tangles, join broken places and regulate the machines.

     这张照片中的织机是日本最常用的手足织机之一,世界各地也都在使用类似的织机。

     这位年长的妇女正在织丝绸,她右手拿着一个梭子,脚踩着脚踏板。在这种织机中,踏板是由竹子制成的。

     织经纱,也就是织物的纵向线的时候,如同织机右端看到的一样,会小心的将其缠绕在经纱梁上。通过这条横梁把经纱拉紧,为了防止横梁转动,会再用一个木楔子卡住横梁外侧十字架结构的一根木臂上。这个十字架和木栓在照片中能被清晰的看到。从经纱横梁,织线向后一直绕过长桌一样的织机末端。在这里,经纱的分开与交叉通过照片中年轻妇女握着的两根木杆来控制。之后经纱还会穿过综线圈们,这些综线被缠绕在小框架上,被织机顶部两个滑轮上的绳吊着。每两个棕线圈被安排束缚互相间隔的经纱。因此当一个踏板上升,另一个踏板降低时,相间隔的一条经纱会被抬高。此时梭子会穿过两组经纱之间,然后反过来踩两个踏板。之前下方的经纱会被抬高,同时拉低之前在上方的经纱,然后梭子再起通过两组经纱之间。在穿梭之后,织工左手所持的簧片会被拉向自己,这样就把纬线紧紧地拉到先前织好的布上,称之为织好了一线长的布。然后再把簧片向前推,脚踏板反过来踩后再次扔梭子,往回拉簧片,并一直反复做这一组动作。

     被织好的布会随着时间不断地缠绕在布梁上,它的圆形的一端可以在织工的右手附近看到。同时相同长度的未织的经纱会从经纱梁处放出。

     这个织机的设计图和现代化织机的设计图并没有什么本质的区别,现代化织机已经在全世界的工厂得以应用。

     正如这台织机正编织着纯色的织物,条纹布可以通过调整不同颜色的经纱获得,格子布则可以通过改变纬纱和经纱中使用的线的颜色来编织。这样则需要2台甚至更多台的织机来配合。若想织更复杂的结构,如缎纹、斜纹、花纹、丝绒等,则需要更加复杂的织机。一般是通过增加更多的综线和两个以上的经线。

     在一家现代化的纺织厂里,经常有几百台蒸汽织机同时运行。所有的工作都是自动完成的,只需要工人供给纱线,理顺缠线,接断头和调试机器。



15.《采茶》日本

PICKING TEA

JAPAN

       Tea consists of the prepared young leaves of a shrub (Thea sinensis, Theaceae) which is largely cultivated in China, India, Japan, Ceylon and Java.  The tea plant when growing wild reaches a height of ten. to twenty feet, but in the plantations it is kept trimmed down to a bush from two to five feet high.

       Tea plants are generally grown from seed, and the young plants set out in rows, as seen in the picture.  In the third year the first leaves can be picked, and from then on the leaves can be gathered for six or seven years after which the bushes must be cut down to cause a renewal of young shoots.  When about fifteen years old the plants cease to be profitable and are usually destroyed.

       The picking is an operation of great nicety, in which as a rule only women and children are employed.  The men are busy at the same time curing the leaves.  Small bamboo baskets are commonly used in all tea countries for holding the leaves as they are picked.  Only from three to six leaves nearest to the tips of the young shoots are gathered by the pickers during the season.  The older leaves being tougher and more bitter are unfit for making tea of good flavor.

       This picture was taken in Japan, and shows a typical tea plantation on the slope of a hill.

       In Japan, where fields are generally small, tea is raised mostly on hillsides and the bushes are always kept trimmed low.  In India, tea plants are allowed to grow somewhat taller.  The row of girls in the foreground, each of whom has a basket, are the pickers.  The pickers pinch the leaves off with their finger nails, leaving, of the larger ones, a small piece of leaf on the stem, so that the plant heals quickly.

In the tropical tea fields of Ceylon, India and Java the leaves are picked very frequently,

       while in the cooler regions, such as northern China and Japan where the plants do not grow so rapidly, the leaves can be picked only once or twice during the season.  Where several harvests are gathered in a season, the leaves from the first harvest make the best tea.

       As soon as picked, the leaves are carefully cured.  If green tea is to be made (as in Japan and parts of China), they are steamed, "fired" in a pan heated over a charcoal fire, dried, sorted, and packed.  In other countries, where mostly black tea is made, the leaves are left to ferment

       slightly before undergoing these operations.  Tea for export is "fired" a second time to dry it more thoroughly.

       茶主要来自于一种的灌木(学名:Thea sinensis,茶科)的嫩叶子,大量在中国、印度、日本、斯里兰卡和爪洼岛上被种植。茶树在野外可以长到10到20英尺高,但是在种植园会被修建成只有2到5英尺那么高。

       一般都是从种子开始被种植,幼被布置成照片中一排一排的样子。茶长到第三年后才可以被摘取第一片叶子,从那以后长在同样位置的叶子可以被采集六到七年,之后必砍掉枝杈,以便新嫩枝的生长。大15年树龄时茶树停止生长,并且通常会被砍掉。

       采摘是一种非常精确的操作,按照规定允许雇用女和儿童,男人负责烘干树叶。在所有的产茶国采摘工通常用小竹容纳刚摘下的叶子。在个季,只有茶树嫩枝顶端的3到6枚叶片才会被采摘下来。叶子会变得有点坚韧,略苦的味道不适合成为好的口味

       这照片是在日本拍的,展示了一个典型的在山坡上的茶园。日本的茶园一般规模较小,大多是在山坡上生长,而且树丛也一直被修剪的非常矮小。在印度,茶可以得更高一些。照片前方手持篮子的一排女孩是采摘工。她们只用手指甲掐掉叶,留下大一的叶子在树枝上,这样茶树恢复的更快些。

       斯里兰卡、印度和爪哇的热带茶园里,茶叶采摘非常的频繁,而在冷的地区茶树生长没那么快,如中国北部和日本一个季度只能采摘一到两次。在一个季度里只能采摘几次的地区,第一次收的叶子就是最好品质的茶

       一旦被采摘下来,茶叶马上就要被小心的烘干。如果要制作绿茶(比如在日本和中国的部分地区),它们会放入用用木炭加热的锅中干炒,炒干后分类包装。在其它主要生产红茶的国家,茶叶先要堆在一起轻微的发酵,然后再进行以上操作。用于出口的茶叶则要再炒干一次,以便更彻底地烘干。”



16.《茶叶烘烤》日本

PREPARING TEA, PAN-FIRING

JAPAN

       This picture shows the interior of a “tea-firing go-down”.

       Before an exporter gets the tea, the freshly picked leaves are first steamed, and then fired. Later they are more thoroughly dried, sorted, and carefully packed. The tea is then in the condition in which it is sold on the Japanese market.

       For export, tea must be again dried to prevent deterioration due to the moist salt air on a long sea voyage. It is then packed in boxes lined with lead foil.  At the seaports, large factories called “go-downs”, are located, where the final drying (or firing) and the packing are carried on. In this “go-down” the tea is fired in what are called pans.  These are large hemispherical iron kettles, each with a separate charcoal fire under it.  A girl works at each pan.  About five pounds of tea is put in a pan and the girl stirs it about with her hands for an hour or two until it is thoroughly dry. A few men are bringing in the tea in large baskets.  Notice that between every two pans is a little box.  These boxes contain substances, such as orange peeling, jasmine flowers, rose leaves, etc., to flavor black tea; or dyeing matter to color green tea.  From labels on the packing boxes it can be seen that the exporter is an American.

       这张照片展示的是海港茶工厂的内部情景。

       茶叶在出口之前,先把新鲜采摘的叶片蒸熟,然后再烘干。之后再彻底的干燥、分类,并仔细包装,这样的茶才会在日本市场上出售。

       如果为了出口,茶叶必须再次干燥,为了防止在海上长途航行中由于潮湿含盐的空气而变质。干燥后会它装在贴有铅箔的盒子里。海港附近会有专门的大型烘茶工厂,在那里进行最后的干燥和包装。在这种工厂里,茶是用专门的锅来烘烤的。这些半球形的大铁锅,每个下面都有一个单独的炭火加热,每个锅都由单独的女工负责。一个锅里大约要放五磅的茶叶,女工用她的手在锅里搅拌一到两个小时,直至完全干透。然后几个男工把茶倒入一个大篮子里。值得注意的是,每两个大锅之间会放一个小盒子,其中装有一些物质,如橘子皮、茉莉花、玫瑰叶等,用来为红茶调味;或为绿茶染色。这后面包装盒上的商标可以看出,出口商是美国人。



17.《椰子加工》菲律宾群岛

OPENING COCOANUTS

PHILIPPINE ISLANDS

       This cocoanut palm (Cocos nucifera, Palmae) grows wild and in cultivation in all tropical countries, but never very far from the sea coast.

      To the natives of many of the islands of the Pacific, it is the most important plant which grows, furnishing food, drink, shelter, fuel and a multitude of useful articles.

       The meat of the unripe nut is very nourishing, as is also the milk. These are prominent features of the native diet. Many of the natives are very fond of an alcoholic liquor fermented from the juice which they collect by cutting the terminal bud.

       The wood of the tree serves to make fires and to form the framework of the houses. The leaves of the tree are often used for thatching the native roofs. The fiber from the husk of the nut is twisted into cord and rope, and the hard shell serves as a bowl or cup. From the dried meat of the ripe nut is pressed an oil which is used in cooking, for toilet purposes and for burning in native lamps. The natives sell an enormous amount of the dried cocoanut meat (copra) to traders in exchange for muslin, hardware and other desirable merchandise.

       This photograph taken in the Philippine islands shows several of the natives engaged in removing the meats from a great heap of cocoanuts, preparatory to drying the copra. These nuts are the harvest of several weeks from the grove of cocoanut trees near-by. The trees show well in the background and a line of them, as is very usual, edges the shore at the right.

       One man with his back toward us is splitting the husk off the nuts by forcing them down on the sharp point of an iron bar stuck in the ground. The other three men break the hard shells open by sharp blows with “bolos” or large knives. The man at left has just split a nut and the milk can be seen running from his hand to the ground. The broken nuts are thrown in large baskets woven of bamboo or rattan like the one seen in the foreground. They are then carried away and spread on drying racks in the sun. After a few days the meat of the nut shrivels and can easily be separated from the shell. The shells are picked out and thrown away and the meats are left to become thoroughly dry.

       Cocoanut oil is pressed from copra in Europe and America and is used for making soap and candles, and for cooking.

       椰子棕榈(学名:Cocos nucifera,棕)原是野生植物,后来被所有热带国家所种植,但其也不能远离海岸。

       对太平洋许多岛屿的当地人来说,它是最重要的植物。它提供食物、饮料、住所、燃料和其它大量有用的物品。

       生坚果的肉很有营养,椰奶也很有营养,这些都是本地饮食的显著特征。许多当地人非常喜欢从果汁中发酵出来的酒,这种果汁是通过切割椰树末端的芽来收集的。

       椰树的木头可以生火,也可以当做建房屋的框架。椰树的叶子,常被用来做屋顶。椰子壳外面的纤维用于制成绳索和绳子,硬壳可以当作碗或杯子。从熟透的坚果干肉中榨出的油可用于烹饪,也可以点灯。当地人晒干的椰子肉卖给贸易商,以换取薄棉布、工具和其它物美价廉的商品。

       在菲律宾群岛拍摄的这张照片显示,几个当地人正在挖椰子肉,并准备烘干。这些椰子是几个星期前从附近的椰子树林中收获的。照片背景中椰子树的排列是非常典型热带海边的样子

       背对着我们的人正在用插在地上的铁棍分离椰子的外皮。另外三个人用“大刀”或“砍刀”,猛击坚硬的外壳。左边的男人正好砍开了一个椰子,可以看到椰子汁正从他的手中淌到地上。碎果壳被扔到照片前方竹子或藤条编成的大篮子里。然后它们被运到阳光下的晒干架上散开,几天后椰子肉就会萎缩,很容易地就可以从壳里分离开来。外壳被挑出扔掉,剩下的椰子肉会被留下直至完全干燥。

      椰子油是从干燥的椰子肉中榨取出来,在美国和欧洲用于制作肥皂和蜡烛,或用于烹饪。



18.《新南威尔士州的群》澳大利亚

A FLOCK OF SHEEP

NEW SOUTH WALES, AUSTRALIA

       Sheep are raised in practically all parts of the world outside of the tropics.

       Australia, Argentina, Uruguay, Russia and the United States are the leading sheep-raising countries.

       This picture shows a flock of Merino sheep in New South Wales, being rounded up by shepherds and dogs. Here and there in the flock can be seen the young lambs, and the rams with their curved horns. On the great sheep ranches, the flocks often number many thousands. They keep close together when grazing and are herded by men on horseback and by sheep dogs. Once a year, the sheep are shorn. The wool, which is generally the most valuable product of a sheep ranch, varies in quality with the different breeds of sheep.

       The breeds have developed from one original stock and are due to differences in climate and food and to selection in breeding. Some breeds, like the Southdown, are most valuable for mutton, and some, like the Merino, on account of the fine quality of their wool.

       Merino sheep were originally developed in Spain and for several centuries were raised nowhere else. Various breeds of sheep have developed in Great Britain, prominent among which are the Southdown, Lincoln, Dorset, Highland, Cotswold and Leicester. Cross-bred sheep, such as the Lincoln-Merino, are raised in large numbers, because they are hardier and produce more mutton than pure Merino and better wool than pure Lincoln.

        Mutton is not so important an item as either beef or pork in the world’s commerce although many frozen carcasses of sheep and lambs are sent from Australia and Argentina to Europe.

        Sheep and lamb skins are used as furs under various names. Morocco leather and chamois are made by tanning sheep skins.

       除了热带,棉羊在世界各地都有被养殖的。其中澳大利亚、阿根廷、乌拉圭、俄罗斯和美国是养羊的主要国家。

       图为新南威尔士州的一群美利奴羊,被牧羊人和狗围住,羊群里到处都是小羊羔和弯着角的公羊。大型牧羊场中,羊群通常有数千只羊。在放牧时,会被由骑着马的人和牧羊犬聚集在一起。羊毛一年被剪掉一次,其通常是牧场中最有价值的产品,不同品种的绵羊产的羊毛品质也是不同的。

       这些品种都是从一个原始品种发展而来的,不同的气候和食物,以及育种的选择造成了这些不同。有些品种,如无角短毛羊,是最有价值的羊肉。还有一些,比如美利奴羊,是优良品质的羊毛。

       美利奴羊最初是在西班牙培育的,并且好几个世纪以来都只在西班牙有。不同品种的绵羊都已在英国发展起来,其中最突出的是无角短毛羊、林肯羊、多塞特羊、高地羊、科茨沃尔德羊和莱斯特羊。像林肯美利奴这样的杂交绵羊也被大量饲养,因为他们比纯种美利奴更强壮,能产出更多的羊肉,也比纯林肯产的羊毛更好。

       羊肉在世界贸易中不像牛肉或猪肉那么重要,尽管许多羊和羊羔的冷冻肉品,都是从澳大利亚和阿根廷运往欧洲的。

       绵羊和羔羊皮会被用作与皮草,摩洛哥皮革和羚羊皮都是由绵羊皮制成的。



19.《剪羊毛》澳大利亚新南威尔士州

SHEARING SHEEP

NEW SOUTH WALES, AUSTRALIA

        This photograph shows the interior of a shed where sheep are sheared.  Each workman has a live sheep on the floor at his feet and passes over its body a set of clippers worked by machinery.  These clippers are run from a shaft with many wheels on it, seen overhead in the picture. 

        The wool as it is clipped from the sheep's back, does not fall apart like bunches of hair, but holds together almost like a skin. 

        As soon as the wool is off, the sheep is put in a pen, back of the workman, and the fleece is gathered up by a boy who takes it to tables in the wool-classer's room.  Here men pull off burrs and dirt, and place the fleeces in bins according to their quality.  Each fleece is tied up by itself and then many fleeces are pressed into a large bale.  A bale usually weighs about three hundred and fifty pounds to four hundred and fifty pounds and a single fleece of good merino wool weighs from five to nine pounds. 

         On the large "stations" or sheep ranches in Australia, the herds sometimes number as many as two hundred thousand sheep.  They are shorn once a year and are generally washed before shearing, to rid the wool of much of the grease and dirt.

         Australia, Argentina, Uruguay, Russia and the United States are the leading sheep-raising countries.  The different breeds have developed from one original stock and are due to differences in climate and food and to selection in breeding.  Some breeds, like the Southdown, are most valuable for mutton, and some, like the Merino, on account of the fine quality of their wool, and in these respects each breed differs somewhat from the others. Merino sheep originally developed in Spain and for several centuries were raised nowhere else.  Various breeds of sheep have developed in Great Britain, prominent among which are the Southdown, Lincoln, Dorset, Highland, Cotswold and Leicester.  Cross-bred sheep such as the Lincoln-Merino are raised in large numbers, because they are hardier and produce more mutton than pure Merino and better wool than pure Lincoln. 

         The wools of commerce are roughly classified into three important kinds—clothing, carding and carpet wools; the first, used chiefly in making woolen goods, the second, in making worsteds and the third for carpets and other coarse fabrics.

      这张照片展示了剪羊毛棚子里的情景。每个工人脚下都有一只活羊,一种机器剪刀掠它们的身体。这些剪刀被照片上方的一根主轴上许多轮盘来驱动。

      羊毛是从羊背上剪下来的,它不是像毛发一样散落开来,而是像皮肤一样紧紧地聚拢在一起。一旦羊毛被剪下来,羊就会被扔到工人身后的围栏里,而羊毛将会被一个小男孩捡起来,放到用于羊毛分级的房间桌子上。在这里,挑拣工拔掉毛头和污垢,然后根据它们的品质放进不同的箱子里。每一片羊毛都会相互缠绕在一起,而许多片羊毛会被压缩成一个重达350磅到450磅之间的大包,其中一片质量上乘的美利奴羊毛只有5到9磅沉。

      在澳大利亚的大牧场上,牧群里能多达二十万只羊。它们每年剪一次毛,在剪羊毛前都要清洗一遍,以去除羊毛中的大部分油脂和杂物。

      澳大利亚、阿根廷、乌拉圭、俄罗斯和美国是主要养羊国。些品种都是从一个原始品种展而来的,经过培育之后,为适应不同的气候和食物发展成新品种。有些品种,如无角短毛羊,是最有价的羊肉。有一些,比如美利奴羊,是良品的羊毛。每一个品种多多少少在某些方面比其它品种的羊会有所不同。美利奴羊最初是在西班牙培育的,并且好几个世以来都只在西班牙有。不同品种的都已在英国展起来,其中最突出的是无角短毛羊、林肯羊、多塞特羊、高地羊、科茨沃尔德羊和莱斯特羊。像林肯美利奴这样也被大量养,因种美利奴更强壮,能出更多的羊肉,也比林肯的羊毛更好。

      商用羊毛大致可分为服装、粗纺羊毛和地毯羊毛三大类,第一种主要用于制作羊毛织品,第二种用于制作毛绒,第三种用于制作地毯和其他粗织物。



20.《锯木厂》澳大利亚
 SAWMILL

AUSTRALIA

      This picture shows a sawmill in the Waigerup forest, Western Australia.  Two large circular saws are run by steam power.  In the center of the picture a log, several feet in diameter, is held in position on the carriage ready to be slid up against the revolving saw. 

       After it has been cut through its entire length, it will be shifted an inch or two and again cut, and the operation will be repeated till the whole log is cut into boards. 

       This picture was taken before the mill was completed.  The upright posts can be seen which will support the roof and sides of the mill. 

        In the background are seen the tents of the workmen and the log and lumber railway with its small locomotive and cars.  To the right is a winding machine used for drawing the logs on to the saw carriage.

        Mills are always built where it is easy to get a large supply of logs.  Often, as in this instance, the sawmills are set up directly in the forest.  When the logs are cut in one section of the forest, these small mills are moved on to another place.  Frequently the large sawmills are located some distance down the streams, and the logs are rafted together and floated down to them.  This is a convenient arrangement when railroads do not run directly through the forests, for then the sawmills can be located on the line of a railroad and the cut lumber can easily be shipped away. 

        As the picture shows, this mill is working with circular saws.  Instead of these, band saws may be used.  Several saws may run parallel to each other, thus cutting several boards from the same log at one time.  These are called gang saws.

        The timber reaches the mill in the form of logs, which have been cut to special length by the lumbermen.  The lengths are determined by the purpose for which the lumber is to be used.  Lengths of twelve, fourteen and sixteen feet are commonly cut for boards, scantling, and framing timbers. 

        Logs eighteen or twenty to forty and sixty feet in length are cut into dimension stock, bridge timbers, etc.  Mast and spar timber is cut in still greater lengths.  For tool handles, wagon stock, veneer sawing, etc., the logs are often cut as short as four or six feet. 

        Woods of various kinds are used for the special purpose for which they are best suited. The soft woods, such as pine, are commonly used for construction, while hard woods with beautiful color or grain, like oak and walnut, are used in cabinet making.  Many woods are suited by their beauty, lightness, ease of working, or other special quality, for particular manufactures.  Examples of these are mahogany which is valued for its beauty and ease of being worked, ebony valued for its color and weight, and hickory valued for its elasticity and strength. 

        The forests of Western Australia show a variety of trees that are commercially of importance.  Among them are Karri, one of the tallest trees in the world; Jarrah, which is sometimes called mahogany; Tuarf, Sandal-wood and Wattle.  The bark of the latter is exported for tanning purposes.

      这张照片是西澳大利亚州韦格里森林里的锯木厂。两个大型的圆锯由蒸汽动力驱动,在图片的中心,一根直径几英尺的圆木被固定在托架上,准备滑向正在旋转的圆锯

      当整根圆木被纵向切开后,它会被横移一或两英寸,然后重复操作,直到整个圆木被切成木板为止。

      这张照片是在工棚建成前拍的,右上角的柱子是准备用来支撑屋顶和墙体的。背景中可以看到工人的帐篷,原木、运木材的铁路以及上面的小火车头和车厢。右边还有一台绕线的机器,用来把原木拉到锯轨上。

      工棚一般会建在容易获得大量木材的地方,通常在这种情况下,锯木厂是直接建立在森林中的。当原木被砍伐在森林的某一地方时,这些小工棚就会被移到这个地方。大型锯木厂一般位于溪流的下游,圆木被捆成筏子一起漂浮下去。当铁路不能穿过森林的时候,这是一个方便的方案。锯木厂也可以建在铁路边上,这样切割好的木材就可以很容易被运走。

      从照片上可以看出,这个锯木厂使用的是圆锯,其实也可以使用带锯。使用带锯后,几个锯子可以平行运行,同时从同一圆木上切下好几块木板来。这样的锯被称为直锯。

      木材在以圆木的形式送往锯木厂之前,先会被伐木工人切割成特定的长度。这些长度取决于木料未来的用途。12、14、16英尺是最为常见的板材、梁材和构架材长度。18或20英尺到40和60英尺的长度的木材只要用于规格材和桥梁用材等,用于船桅和船梁的圆木长度将会更长。用于制作工具把手、车把手和单板锯等东西的圆木会被锯成四到六英尺长。

      不同品种的木头会根据它们的特性用于不一样领域。软点的木材,比如松木,一般用于建造建筑物;硬一点,有比较好看颜色或纹路的木材,比如橡木和核桃木,被用于制作柜子。不同木材会根据其外表、亮度、加工难易度,或者其它特性匹配给不同的制造商。比如红木的特性是好看的外表和较易被加工,黑檀木有价值的是它的颜色和重量,胡桃木则是被看重其良好的弹性和硬度。

      澳大利亚西部森林中由很多种树木均有很高的商业价值。比如有考里木,是世界上最高的树种之一;红柳桉树,俗称红木;还有澳洲桉树和檀香等。



21.《稻田梯田》斯里兰卡

PADDY FIELDS

CEYLON

       The rice plant (Oryza sativa, Gramineae) is a grass which grows in swampy ground. It is cultivated in fields which can be kept flooded during the period of growth. Rice is one of the oldest cereals in cultivation and the principal food of the inhabitants of southeastern Asia.

       In the rice-growing countries of Asia there is not nearly enough swampy land available to grow sufficient rice for people’s needs. They, therefore, resort to many ingenious ways of flooding their rice fields, or “paddy” fields, as they call them.

       Where there is dry level land, they sometimes conduct water in canals for long distances. Frequently there is an abundant supply of water, but no level land. Then the farmers make terraces on the slopes of the hills, building mud walls along the edge of each terrace. Thus they enclose numerous small level patches. These little fields are so arranged that they can all be flooded by water admitted from above.

       In this photograph the small mud dams can be seen plainly. Some of the terraces are flooded with water. When the rice is ripe, the water is drawn off from the fields so that the grain will not be wet during the cutting.

       Such terracing for paddy fields is quite common in Japan, China, India, Madagascar, and various islands of the India and Pacific Oceans. It gives an idea of the cheapness of labor in these countries when one considers the amount of work it takes to terrace and raise the rice, and compares this with the cheapness of rice in the same market.

      水稻(Oryza sativa,禾本科)是一种生长在湿地上的像草一样的植物。在生长期间,培育其的农田可以保持一直淹水的状态。水稻是最古老的粮食作物之一,也是东南亚居民的主要食物。

      在亚洲的水稻种植国中,几乎没有足够的湿地来种植水稻以满足人民的需要。因此,他们采用许多巧妙的方法来淹没他们的稻田,或称之为“水田”。

      有的地方旱地较多,他们会从远方的运河里引水。有的地方供水丰富,但是可耕种的土地不多,这样农民会在山坡上建了梯田,沿着每梯田的边缘筑起了泥墙。这样他们围了许多小的水田。这些小水田在建造时就会被设计好,正好可以被上面流下的水淹没。

      在这张照片中,可以清楚地看到小的泥坝,有些梯田被水淹没了已经。当稻谷成熟时,水会从稻田中被抽走,这样在收割的时候谷物就不会变湿了。

      这种梯田在日本、中国、印度、马达加斯加,以及印度洋和太平洋各岛屿来说相当普遍。当考虑到建造梯田以及种植大米所需巨大的工作量,但是市场上却非常廉价的大米,这说明在当地有着同样廉价的劳动力。


22 .《椰子树种植园》斯里兰卡

COCOANUT PLANTATION

CEYLON

       The cocoanut palm (Cocos nucifera, Palmae) often grows to a height of a hundred feet.  It does not send out branches, but at the top of the tree are perhaps twenty large feathery leaves, each fifteen feet or more in length. At the base of the leaves, the nuts hang in bunches.  The trees grow throughout the tropics, but never very many miles away from the sea coast.  Cocoanuts are the principal product of many islands in the Pacific, and are cultivated on all tropical shores.  Ceylon, India, the East Indies, the West Indies and South and Central America all produce enormous quantities.

       A cocoanut tree begins to bear when five or six years old and continues to yield fruit for fifty years or more.  A tree in full bearing, at the age of ten years, in a well-kept plantation, may be counted on to produce sixty nuts a year, although some trees will ripen more than a hundred nuts.  Flowers and nuts are found on the same tree during the entire year.

       The hard shell of the cocoanut is covered, as it grows, with a thick fibrous husk.  The unripe nut is lined with a soft aluminous jelly within which is a clear liquid.  The jelly is a favorite food and the liquid a popular drink among the people wherever cocoanut trees grow.  As the nut ripens, the jelly hardens and becomes white.  The meat from ripe nuts is eaten in the countries where they grow as well as in temperate climates.

       Shredded cocoanut and similar preparations are made in the tropics, especially in Ceylon, from fresh ripe nuts.  From many of the ripe nuts, the flesh or meat is removed and dried, either in the sun, or over a fire.  The dried cocoanut meats, known as “copra”, are pressed in powerful machines which squeeze out an oil.  The finest cocoanut oil, pressed from freshly-dried, sound fruit, is used as a table oil and for cooking in the tropics.  The poorer grades of oil are burned by the natives in their primitive lamps.  These grades are used in Europe and America for making soap.

       The husks are generally broken off from the ripe nuts which are to be shipped abroad, since the nuts without the husks occupy so much less space.  In some countries the fiber of these husks is cleaned and combed out.  It is sold on the market as “coir” and is used for making brushes, door mats, mattings and ropes.

       The hard shell of the cocoanut is utilized by the natives of the tropics for making cups, bowls, and ladles.  The wood of old cocoanut palms is very hard and takes a good polish.  It is used in the tropics for building purposes and imported into Europe for cabinet makers under the name of “porcupine wood”.

       The leaves of the trees are used for thatching roofs.  The sweet juice flowing from the cut flower stalks is fermented into a palm wine called “toddy”, boiled down to syrup or palm sugar “jaggery”, or distilled for “arrack”, or made into vinegar.  In some places even the roots are utilized, being woven into baskets, or chewed like areca nuts.

       椰子树(Cocos nucifera,棕榈科)一般会找到100英尺高。它并没有分枝,只会在树顶有20片羽毛状的大叶子,每一片至少有15英尺长。椰子树的果实在叶子的底部,簇成一束挂在一起。在整个热带地区都生长着椰子树,但都离海边较近。它是太平洋上许多岛屿的主要产品,在所有的热带海岸都有种植,斯里兰卡、印度、东印度群岛、西印度群岛,以及南美洲和中美洲都产大量的生长。

       一棵椰子树在五到六岁的时候开始结果,并且持续长达五十年以上。在一个管理良好的种植园中,一棵十年树龄长满果实的树,每年能结出六十颗椰子,有的还会结一百多个。整年都可以看到椰子花和椰子果同时在一颗树上。

       椰子坚硬的外壳在生长时,外面有一层厚厚的纤维状外皮。未成熟的椰子壳内布满了一种软的富含蛋白质果冻,内含一种透明的液体。果冻是人们喜爱的食物,而液体则是椰子生长地居民普遍喜爱的饮料。当椰子成熟后,果冻变硬变白。成熟椰子的果肉会在它们生长的国家,以及温带国家当做食物被食用。

       碎片状的椰肉是在热带国家中用新鲜的成熟的椰果制作的,尤其是斯里兰卡。许多成熟的椰果的椰肉被取出后,通过太阳晒干或者被火烤干。干燥的椰肉,俗称“椰干”,可以被机器榨出椰油来。最好的椰子油,出自新鲜干燥,没有腐烂的椰子,是作为一种食用油和烹饪油,在热带地区被广泛使用。稍微差些油,当地人则用它点灯照明,而在欧美会被用于做成肥皂。

       因为没有壳的椰子所占的空间很小,外壳通常会从将要运往国外的成熟坚果中分离出来。在一些国家,这些外壳的纤维被清洗和梳理,它在市场上作为副产品出售,用于制作刷子、门垫、座垫和绳索。

       热带土著人还利用椰子坚硬的外壳,制作杯子、碗和勺子。老椰子树的木材很硬,表面光滑,在热带地区被用于的建筑用途。进口到欧洲后,被橱柜制造商冠于“豪猪木”的名字。

       椰子树的叶子,则被用来建造屋顶。切开花柄流出的甜汁,可以被发酵成棕榈酒,也可以被煮稠成为糖浆或棕榈糖“棕榈粗糖”,或被蒸馏制成“亚力酒”,或制成醋。在一些地方,甚至连根也会被利用,被编织成篮子,或者像槟榔一样咀嚼。



23.《榨椰子油》斯里兰卡

MAKING COCOANUT OIL

CEYLON

       The cocoanut palm (Cocos nucifera, Palmae) grows wild and in cultivation in all tropical countries, but never many miles from the sea coast. Ceylon, India, the East Indies, the islands of the Pacific, and tropical America are the heaviest producers of cocoanuts.  The fruits are largely used for food, and when dried are extensively pressed for oil.

       The nuts, as they grow on the trees, have a thick tough husk covering the hard shell.  This husk the natives tear off from the ripe nuts and then break open the hard shells.  The milk is thrown away, and the meat taken out and dried, either in the sun or over a fire.  The dried kernels are known as “copra”.  Copra is largely exported to Europe or America, where the oil is expressed. It is also pressed in smaller quantities in the tropics.

       In this picture, in the center, is a large mortar in which the workman places the copra.  The heavy piece of wood, or the pestle, which crushes the copra and presses out the oil, extends upward several feet, and is       connected by a sloping bar with a long timber to which the cattle are harnessed.  As the cattle are driven around in a circle, the oil is slowly pressed out and, from time to time, drawn off.  A light roof thatched with cocoanut leaves revolves over the press shading the workman.

       The cattle seen in the picture are zebus, the typical humped cattle of India and neighboring countries.

       In the background to the left are seen the barrels in which cocoanut oil is shipped away.

       Cocoanut oil is liquid at temperatures above about 80°F.  Below this it is a white solid, more or less like lard in appearance.

        It is used throughout southern and southeastern Asia and the adjacent islands in cooking, as an illuminating oil, as well as for minor purposes, such as anointing the body.  In our country, it forms the basis for soaps, is used as a cooking oil instead of lard, and enters into the composition of candles, oleomargarine, and of some lubricating oils.  To employ it for lighting, the natives put it in a small dish or open vessel and dip in it a bit of cotton or other loosely twisted fiber, one end of which extends over the edge of the dish and is lighted.  The resulting illumination is not dazzling, of course, but it is the customary light among thousands of the Malays.

       The natives use the shells, leaves, fiber, shoots, juice, stems and roots of the cocoanut palm in many ways.

       椰子棕(学名:Cocos nucifera,棕)原是野生植物,后来被所有热带国家所种植,但其也不能离海岸。斯里兰卡、印度、东印度群岛、太平洋岛屿和热带美洲是椰子最丰产的地区。椰子很大程度上用作于食物的原料,或者干燥后被搾成椰子油使用。

       椰子在树上生长时,其坚硬的外壳会被有一层厚厚的外皮所包裹着。当地人会把外皮撕掉,然后打开其坚硬的外壳。椰汁会被倒掉,椰肉被拿出来被太阳晾干或者在火上烤干。干掉的的椰子肉被称为 “椰子干”,主要出口到欧洲或美洲。在那里用于压榨椰子油,只有少量的会留在热带当地压榨。

       这张照片中间是一个巨大的臼是放椰子干的地方,大块的木头是杵,用于挤压椰子干,将椰子油压榨出来。中间向外延伸了一根长约几英尺的木头,        把牛拴在了另一头。牛被驱使着不停地转圈,油就被慢慢地挤压出来。工人头顶上有一个铺着椰子叶的棚顶也跟着旋转,用于工人遮住阳光。

       拉榨油机的牛叫做瘤牛,是典型的印度和邻近国家才有的驼峰牛。照片左边可以看到,成桶的椰子油正在被运走。高于26.6度时,椰子油才会是液体。低于这个温度,将会是白色的固体,外形上看会有点像是猪油。

       整个南亚和东南亚及邻近的岛屿,椰子油被用于烹饪或作为照明油。在美国是肥皂的原料,也可以代替猪油用于烹饪,或加入蜡烛、人造黄油和某些润滑油。如果当作照明,当地人会把椰子油放在一个小的敞开式的容器中,插入一根棉线或其它松散扭曲的纤维,其棉线另一端延伸到容器边缘,然后点燃。虽然产生的光不是很耀眼,但它却是成千上万马来人的习惯之光。

       当地人还会把椰子的壳、叶子,纤维,树枝,汁液、根茎用于其它很多用途。



24.《石墨矿》斯里兰卡

      GRAPHITE MINE

      CEYLON

        This photograph shows an open pit or mine in Ceylon from which graphite (plumbago or black lead) is taken.

      The Sinhalese workmen, most of whom wear hardly any clothing ascend and descend by means of rough wooden ladders tied with native ropes. The ladders being wet and covered with graphite dust are exceedingly slippery. A windlass above the opening hauls up the graphite from the bottom by means of the long vertical double chains seen in the middle of the picture.

      From the main shaft a few short tunnels lead off, following the best veins of graphite. Cross-timbers are here and there necessary to support the side walls.

      There are many such mines in Ceylon, some of them as much as five hundred feet deep. What can be seen in this picture is from the surface of the ground to a depth of about ninety feet. Some of the mines are equipped with steam pumps for removing water which collects in the mine from rain, or which comes from springs in the earth.

      The graphite occurs in beds or veins along the foliation planes of crystalline limestone and other rocks. The pockets or veins, consisting usually of pure graphite, vary from the smallest size up to a yard or more in width.

      After the graphite is brought to the surface, it is partially cleaned and separated from any rock with which it happens to be mixed. Then it is generally sent to Colombo where it is more carefully cleaned, sifted, and sorted into various qualities and packed in casks for export. The ordinary grades are "large lump", “ordinary lump", " chips, "dust", and "flying dust".

      The greater part of the graphite produced in Ceylon is exported to the United States. Some is sent to England, Germany and other parts of Europe. It is mined in much smaller quantities in New York, Bohemia, and other places.

         It is used in making crucibles, lead pencils and lubricants for chains and heavy machinery. The poorer grades are employed for making stove polish, foundry facings and black paints.

      照片中展示了斯里兰卡一处露天的,被开采的石墨矿坑或矿场。

      僧伽罗族的工人,几乎不穿任何衣服,他们用粗糙绳子捆绑的木头梯子上上下下。梯子上湿漉漉的,并覆盖着石墨粉,所以及其光滑。矿坑上方的绞盘机用照片中间的两根铁链将石墨矿从坑底运出。

      几条小的隧道会沿着品质优良的石墨矿石,从竖井底部引出。横木在这里被用于支撑竖井的两侧。

      这样的矿井在斯里兰卡有好几处,有些可以达到500英尺深。照片中的高度大概只有90英尺高。有些矿井里会配备蒸汽泵,用于排出流到矿井中的雨水,或流进来的泉水。

      石墨矿一般在沿着灰岩和其他岩石的叶面的岩或脉状构中。裂缝中一般藏有纯石墨,从最小尺寸到一码或更宽不等。

      石墨被运到表面后,先会行清洗,并石墨与其它混合在一起的岩石分离。然后它通常会被送到科坡,在那里更仔地清洗、筛选,并根据不同的品质分类,用木桶包装后出口。一般等级会为“块头”普通碎片尘”“扬尘”

      斯里兰卡的大部分石墨出口到美国,其中一部分被送往英国、德国和欧洲其他地区纽约、波希米和其它地区的开采量要小得多

      石墨主要用于制造坩埚、铅笔、链条和机械的润滑油,等级较差的则被制造成擦炉粉,涂料和黑色油漆。