COTTON (Gossypium species, Malvaceae), a relativeof the hollyhocks and mallows, is cultivated in many tropical and semi-tropical regions.  The fiber consists of the hairs covering the seeds of these plants, and is the most important of all vegetable fibers. Two chief varieties are cultivated in the United States: sea-island cotton, which develops on the low, sandy islands that fringe the shores of South Carolina and Georgia, and upland cotton, which is grown in the Gulf states and the interior and higher lands. The former is used for thread, laces and fine cambrics, while the latter enters into the manufacture of a large part of other cotton fabrics in all countries.

       The United States produces more than half of all the cotton of the world. Other great producing regions are India and the East Indies, China and Egypt. The United States exports about two-thirds of its cotton to be manufactured in Europe.

       The cotton is contained in four or five-parted capsules, known as “bolls”. Before the cotton bolls are mature they are egg-shaped, but when they are ripe, they split wide open from the top, and a large white tuft of cotton protrudes from each chamber. As the bolls ripen throughout the summer and fall, the fields must be picked over many times. The pickers, who are generally negroes in most of our cotton states, or Mexicans in Texas, hang long sacks over their shoulders. Using both hands, they pick from the bolls the bunches of cotton containing the seeds, and fill the sacks which they carry. When the picking sacks get too heavy to drag, they are emptied into larger sacks at the end of the rows, or directly into a wagon.

       The wagon takes the loose seed cotton to the cotton gin. There the seeds are taken out by machinery and the cotton fiber or “lint” is pressed into bales. The bales are shipped to the spinning mills where the fiber is spun into yarn.

       Cotton yarns are made into cloths of various kinds, such as muslin, calico, gingham, cambric, India linon, canton flannel, etc., as well as into thread, string and rope.

Cotton seeds, which were in former years a waste material, are now a very valuable by-product. Some are used for planting, some to feed cattle, but most of them are pressed to obtain cottonseed oil.

       The oil is used for cooking, replacing lard; as a table oil, ether adulterating olive oil or as a substitute for it; and for making soaps and other less important products. The oil-cake left after the oil has been pressed from the seeds is an excellent food for cattle.

       Cotton, cottonseed oil and cottonseed oil-cake are all largely exported from the United States to Europe.











       Conon consists of fine twisted hairs which cover and are attached to the seeds of the cotton plant (Gassypium species Malvaceae).  Seeds and fibers are picked together from the plants.  Before spinning the fiber into yarn, it must be separated from the seeds.  This separation is called ginning.

       Modern cotton gins are almost all of the type called the "saw gin", invented by Eli Whitney in 1793.

       This photograph shows an upper room in a gin house in Arkansas.  On each side there are three ginning machines.  The three in series on the right hand side are fed with seed cotton by the pipe directly over them.  A farmer's wagon loaded with seed cotton stands outside the building, and the end of this pipe dips into it.  A powerful fan, located in the casing, one corner of which shows in the lower right hand edge of the picture, creates a strong suction through this pipe. 

       By this means the cotton is unloaded from the wagon, drawn through the pipe, and fed into the gins through the oblong upright chutes numbered 1, 2 and 3.  There is an automatic cut-off valve located in the pipe just above the fan, which regulates the current of air and thus keeps feeding the seed cotton to the gins, as fast as it is needed.

       Below the chutes the machines seem to be divided horizontally into three parts. The upper part is the feeder, a receptacle for holding the cotton and regulating its supply to the actual gin. The middle part, against which the handle of a lever shows plainly, is the gin stand proper.  It contains perhaps seventy circular saws revolving rapidly, with their teeth projecting through slits in a grating.  This grating is too small to allow the cotton seeds to pass through, but the teeth of the saws catch the lint and pull it from the seeds.  The lint is drawn through the grate and then brushed off from the teeth of the saws by large revolving brushes.  The blast from these brushes blows the cotton fiber through a lint flue, which is not seen in the picture, but is located behind the machines. The lint is blown through the lint flue to a condenser where it forms an even bat or layer and then drops into the baling press where eventually many layers will be made into a bale.

       The lower section of the machine is a seed hopper into which the stripped seeds fall.  It connects with a conveyor which takes the cotton seeds to a storage house.

       The gins at the left hand side of the picture are of a little different pattern.  Near the ceiling and above these gins there is a large box called a beater, where the seed cotton is given a preliminary cleaning to get rid of leaves and twigs.  From the beater the cotton is carried by a moving belt to the feeders.  When the feeders are filled the overflow drops on the floor in the background and can be taken up from there and fed again to the machines by the overflow pipe which runs along the ceiling almost in the center of the picture.

       On account of this overflow arrangement the farmer's wagon can be unloaded as fast as the pipes can draw in the cotton and do not have to wait while the ginning is being done, as is necessary with machines fed in the other way.  All of the gins shown in this picture are not of the most common type, but are what are called double-breasted gins.  In them the cotton is first pulled by a revolving spiked roller through a set of grates about three quarters of an inch apart for the purpose of separating bolls, sticks, etc.  Then the cleaned seed cotton goes into the inner breast where the saws running through a closer set of grates, separate the fiber from the seed.  Double-breasted gins are needed only in places where the cotton plants grow very tall and rank, and the cotton is picked full of sticks, bolls and trash.

       The workmen in the center are cleaning up the floor and putting in a bag some seeds which escaped from the hoppers.  In the best gin houses the seed is not allowed to escape thus, and such cleaning up is seldom necessary. 












       Cotton fiber, or lint, consists of the seed hairs of the cotton plant (Gossypium sp. Malvaceae). The southern states of the United States produce more than half of the cotton in the world.

       After cotton is picked from the plants, the fibers must be separated from the seeds. This is done by a cotton gin. The name “cotton gin” is applied not only to the machines which separate the fibers from the seeds, but also to the large buildings which contain the ginning machines and the presses where the cotton is made into bales.

       This photograph shows the lower floor of such a building, with the press at work. On the left is the press, a strong box full of loose cotton. The cotton comes down through pipes from the gins on the floor above. Whenever the press is full, the workman shuts off the supply of cotton from the box above and turns on the steam, which forces the large piston down in to the press. Then the pressure is released, more cotton is admitted, and another layer pressed in, until sufficient lint to make up a bale has been pressed.

       There are always two press boxes side by side, which are arranged to revolve on a platform. When one box is pressed full, the platform is revolved and the empty box takes its place. In this way, one bale is being prepared while another is being tied.

       The two men in the center of the picture have just tied a bale which had previously been pressed at the left. The tying consist simply in adjusting the top of the jute bagging, which lined the press, and slipping six steel bands, known as “ties”, around the bale, through openings left in the box for that purpose. After the ties are fastened, the box is opened, and the pressure from the compressed cotton makes the bands very tight. The bale of cotton, weighing about five hundred pounds, is now ready for shipment.

       This is the ordinary method of pressing. When shipped by rail, the bales are often reduced to one-half their size by a more powerful press, known as the “compress”. Besides the square bales, round or cylindrical bales are made to some extent.

       The bales of cotton are bought up by the spinning mills, where cotton is made into yarn and thread to be later woven into cotton fabrics, such as muslin, calico, gingham, cambric, India linon canton flannel, etc., or into laces, string or rope.

       Cotton seeds, which were in former years a waste material, are now a very valuable by-product. Some are used for planting, some for fodder, but most of them are pressed to obtain cottonseed oil.

       The oil is used for cooking, replacing lard; as a table oil, either adulterating olive oil or as a substitute for it; and for making soaps and other less important products. The oil-cake left after the oil has been pressed from the seeds is an excellent food for cattle.


       当棉花从植株上取下后,纤维必须与种子相分离。 “轧棉机”的名称不仅适用于将纤维与种子分离的机器,而且也适用于放置棉机和打包机的工厂










       Cotton fiber, or lint, consists of the seed-hairs of the cotton plant ( Gossypium species, Malvaceae).

       After cotton is picked from the plants, the fibers must be separated from the seeds. This is done by a cotton gin. The name "catton gin is applied not only to the machines which separate the fibers from the seeds, but also to the large buildings which contain the ginning machines and the presses where the cotton is made into bales.

       The southern states of the United States produce more than half of the cotton raised in the world.

       This photograph shows a public square in Montgomery Alabama, where the farmers come with bales of cotton to sell. Each of them raised the cotton on his farm, took it to the gin and had the seeds removed and the cotton made into bales. It is a common custom in the South, to takethe cotton to the nearest town to sell it.

       It will be seen that almost all the people in the picture are negroes. Alabama has a very large negro population. The few white men seen in the picture, walking among the wagons, are probably the buyers. Each carries a sharp knife, with which to “sample” the bales.  They slash deeply through the bagging, pull out a handful of cotton, look at it, and state their price. As the sample is always taken from the same place in the bale and everybody knows it, the farmers generally put the cleanest and finest cotton where it will be taken for the sample. The buyer knows that of course, so that the process of sampling is usually a mere farce.

       Almost the entire trade in cotton in the South lies at present in the hands of middlemen. In other words, the farmers do not sell the cotton directly to the manufacturers, but to speculators who try to buy it from the farmers when the prices are low and to sell to the mills when the prices are higher. These middlemen are often the ginners, or the grocery-men. The poorer farmers especially negroes, can rarely afford to hold the cotton themselves and wait until prices are favorable, as they need the money at once. Many farmers, therefore, sell their bales directly from the gin, and the middlemen frequently make large profits when the price of cotton rises. 

       A striking feature in the picture are the mules. There is not one team of horses in sight. Mules are generally preferred in the South for all hard work, because they have usually more endurance than horses and they generally eat less.


       当棉花从植株上取下后,纤维必须与种子相分离。 “棉机”的名称不适用于将纤维与种子分离的机器,而且也适用于放置棉机和打包机的工厂








       Rice is one of the oldest cereals in cultivation and is, in southeastern Asia, the principal food of the inhabitants. The plant (Oryza saliva, Gramineae) is a grass which grows in swampy ground.

       It is cultivated in fields which can be kept flooded during the period of growth.

There are hundreds of varieties of rice, varying in color, size, hardness, hairiness of the ears, and many other characters.

      The height of the rice plant varies greatly in different localities. In many places it grows to a height of only about three feet, as may be seen in this picture. In South Carolina, the Golden rice is usually from five to nine feet tall, l and in cutting this, three feet or more of stubble are left on the ground. In India, in some districts where the water is deep, it may grow to a height of more than fifteen feet.

      While tropical Asia is the main producer of rice, that grown in the United States is of superior quality and commands a high price. Louisiana now produces half of the rice grown in the United States; Texas, South Carolina, North Carolina and Georgia as well as others of our southern states are important producers.

       In Louisiana and Texas, the rice fields are on the coastal prairies extending from twenty to ninety miles inland from the Gulf. These are dry lands, situated above flood-level and can be worked by heavy modern farm machinery, such as is used on our western wheat fields. Large gang plows drawn by mules prepare the soil, the seed is sown by machines, self-binding mowers cut the ripe grain, and steam threshers working on the fields separate the grain from the straw.

       The fields are flooded during the growing season just as in other countries. Dams around the edges of the fields retain the water, which is pumped up from the rivers and lagoons and conducted to the fields in earthen flumes raised above the level of the land. Before harvesting, the pumps stop work, the dams are cut, and in a few days the land is dry.

       The machines shown here are reapers and binders. They cut the grain (seen standing on the left), pass it automatically across the machines over a carrier to the right side, tie it in bundles and throw these from the fork to the ground to be picked up by the laborers.

       In the Carolinas and Georgia, the rice fields lie in the tide water belts which would naturally be overflowed at every high tide. There, the rivers are held between levees, which have sluices in them. Owing to the wetness of the land there, farm machinery can not be used.

       After rice is threshed, it must still be hulled and polished before it can be used for food. The hulling machine removes the husk, and the polishing machine takes off a thin dark skin from the grain, and rubs it until all the yellowish outside coat has been rubbed off, l and the grain appears white and glossy.

       大米是世界上最古老的谷物之一,也是居民的主要食物。水稻植株(学名:Oryza sativa,禾本科),是一种生在湿地上的像草一的植物。在生,培育其的农田可以保持一直淹水的状












       The flax plant (Linum usitatissimum, Linaceae) is cultivated for two distinct products, the fiber and the seed.
Flax seed is the source of linseed oil, so largely used in oil paints. Flax, raised for seed, is allowed to grow to maturity. The fiber is then of ittle value and the plants are cut by a machine.
Flax fiber is obtained from the bast or inner bark of the stems of the plant, and plants raised for fiber are pulled out by the roots when sill green. The seeds, not being ripe, are not rich in oil.
This picture shows the pulling of flax in the state of Washington.
Several processes are necessary to prepare the fiber; first, the “retting”, which puts the stalk into such condition that the woody portions may be easily removed; second, the "breaking", during which most of the woody portion drops out; third, "scotching”, by which the remaining woody matter and the short ends of fiber are scraped off; and fourth, “hetchling" or "hackling", by which the flax is torn into fine fibers. Formerly all this work was done by hand, and even now so much manual labor is connected with the preparation that the cultivation of the plant for its fiber is limited to countries where labor is cheap.
Belgium produces the best quality, the Courtrai flax. The soft, slow-running water of the river Lys is well suited for the retting process. Russia produces more than one-half of the world's supply, but as it is dew-retted it is poorer in quality than that from Belgium. ltaly, France and Holland produce some of the finest flax, while Egypt furnishes a coarse but extremely long fiber. Ireland does not grow as much as formerly. Japan has introduced the cultivation of flax, and it has also been experimented with in the Australian colonies, where there is a wide range of soil and climate suited to its growth.
In the United States, flax is generally grown for its seed. The cultivation for fiber in this country is usually not profitable. Its cultivation has, nevertheless, begun to attract some attention in Michigan, Minnesota and the Puget Sound region, where the temperature and humidity are about the same as in Belgium and Ireland.
Flax fiber is spun into thread for sewing, and yarns for weaving linen goods.

       Nearly all the best flax manufactures, such as fine linens and laces, are imported from Europe.

       亚麻植株(学名:Linum usitatissimum,亚麻科)主要有两种产品,纤维和种子。











       Anthracite coal, after it comes from the mine, is broken and sorted to various sizes before it is sold. This work is generally done at or near the mines.

      In this photograph, the huge sloping shed-like structure in the center is the breaker. The coal is brought here from the mine, and enters at the top of the building. It passes first between powerful rollers with sharp teeth which break the large lumps of coal to pieces. Then it slides down a long incline, passing over many gratings of successive coarseness. The gratings are made of iron bars placed at certain distances apart. In the first grating, the bars are very close together and only the fine dust sifts through. The next grating has bars half an inch apart and what is sold as buckwheat coal passes between them. Next, pea coal goes through a three-fourths inch grating, nut coal through a one and one-eighth inch grating, and stove, egg, furnace, steamboat and lump coal through bars two inches, two and five-eighths, three and one-half, five inches, and seven inches apart respectively.

       As the coal slides down along the gratings, it is picked over by the breaker boys, who sit on benches above the coal, picking out and throwing aside the pieces of slate and rocky matter which happen to be mixed with it.

       The slate and trash are piled up on the dump, which in this picture is seen at the right hand side. On top of the dump is a framework supporting two large wheels by which cars filled with slate are drawn up the incline to be emptied.

       The coal from the breaker is usually washed with water to rid it of dust and other impurities before it is put on the market. In this picture the washery is located at the extreme left and near it is a great heap of coal dust or culm.

      Until within recent years the culm was piled up as valueless. Considerable quantities of it are now used for firing boilers. In Europe, coal dust (mostly bituminous) is mixed with tar or other cementing material and made into briquettes for use as fuel.

In the foreground of the picture are seen railway hopper cars loaded with coal ready for shipment.

        Pennsylvania produces nearly all of the anthracite coal mined in the world.










       After the experienced miners loosen the coal from its place in the earth, it is loaded on mine cars by miners' helpers. The mine cars run on small tracks, and in this mine are drawn out in trains by an electric mine locomotive, which gets its power from an overhead wire. Mules, formerly used exclusively, are still employed in many mines for hauling the cars. The mine cars are drawn out to the “tipple" and the bituminous coal is often dumped directly into railroad cars for shipment. Spurs from the main railroad lines sometimes run for miles to the large mines. There are several railroads in the United States whose main business is the transportation of coal.
All mines are not so conveniently located as this one. Here the coal "outcrops" along the side of a hill and the seam runs in almost horizontally, so that the cars run on a level. Some beds of coal are deep down in the earth and can be reached only by perpendicular shafts, to which the coal is brought in mine cars, and up which it is hoisted in elevators to the surface of the ground.
That this mine is well ventilated is shown by the naked lamps to be seen on the miners' hats. Some mines have in them dangerous explosive gases (“fire-damp") which make it necessary for the miners to use safety lamps. In these the flame is surrounded by wire gauze. Electric lamps give light in many mines, but they can seldom be used near to the place where the actual work of breaking down the coal is in progress.
Nearly all mines are supplied with fresh air by means of great pumps and fans which blow fresh air to all parts of the mine, thus ridding it of foul gases of all kinds, due to the breath of the workmen, decomposition of the coal, explosion of powder in blasts and other causes.








       This photograph shows a coal miner and his helper at work in a tunnel. The miner is using a compressed-air drill to drive a hole in the lower edge of the working face of the coal vein. The compressed air is supplied through the hose which is fastened to the machine. Charges of powder will be exploded in several such holes at one time, loosening a large mass of coal. Coal is generally loosened from its place in the vein by “undercutting” and "breaking down". In this way it can be taken out in larger pieces than when the work proceeds from above downward.
Coal mines were formerly worked entirely by hand. The miners used picks and shovels to break down the coal and load it on cars. Holes for blasts were bored with hand drills instead of by machinery.
At the present time coal mining machines of many types do a great deal of the work more rapidly than it can be done by hand, and in addition, less coal is broken into small pieces and wasted, than by the older method. Some of the coal mining machines are driven by compressed air and some by electric power.
The coal will be loaded on mine cars which run on the narrow track seen in the foreground, and thus it will be taken to the main shaft and then to the surface of the ground. In some mines the cars are drawn by electric mine locomotives, but in most mines they are hauled by mules.
That this mine is well ventilated is shown by the naked lamps to be seen on the miners' hats. Some mines have in them dangerous explosive gases (" fire-damp") which make it necessary for the miners to use safety lamps. In these lamps, the flame is surrounded by wire gauze. Electric lamps give light in many mines, but they can seldom be used near to the place where the actual work of breaking down the coal is in progress.
Nearly all mines are supplied with fresh air by means of great pumps and fans which blow fresh air to all parts of the mine, thus ridding it of foul gases of all kinds, due to the breath of the workmen, decomposition of the coal, explosion of powder in blasts and other causes.
Enormous quantities of timber are used in mines to give support to the roofs of the tunnels and to prevent the rock falling down from above. In addition to this, great masses of coal are left as supports. It is very dangerous work to remove these “pillars" of coal, and where they have been taken away, cave-ins have sometimes occurred, affecting many acres of ground at the surface.
Pennsylvania is the leading state in this country in the production of bituminous coal, in addition to producing nearly all of the anthracite.












       Petroleum is obtained from wells in various parts of the world.  Each well is simply a hole, only a few inches in diameter, bored in the earth, often to a depth of a thousand feet or more, although many wells are only a couple of hundred feet deep.  When a subterranean deposit of oil is found, many wells are usually sunk in the immediate district.  The derricks above the wells are then a peculiar and characteristic feature of the landscape.  These derricks support the machinery by which tools are lowered into or raised from the wells and the oil pumped out.

       This photograph shows part of an oil field in Los Angeles, California.  The production, while small in comparison with the enormous output of the Appalachian oil district, is still very considerable and is an important factor on the Pacific coast.  In oil fields, the crude oil is generally stored in tanks of which several small ones are seen in the picture.

       Crude petroleum is shipped by rail, sometimes in barrels and sometimes in tank cars; but, especially in the eastern part of the United States, nearly all of the oil is pumped from the wells to the refineries or the sea-board through great pipes (pipe lines), which run for hundreds of miles.  For convenience of shipment, most of the great refineries are located along the coast.

       At the refineries, the crude oil, as it comes from the well, is distilled and yields kerosene,

       coal oil, and similar illuminating oils, as well as fuel oils, naptha, benzine, gasoline, lubricating oils, paraffine, vaseline, etc.  The quality of crude petroleum varies in different localities.  The oils from the Appalachian and the Ohio-Indiana fields are of high grade and contain large percentages of illuminating oil, while the oils obtained in Texas and California yield but small percentages of kerosene and are used for fuel, replacing coal for locomotives, steamboats and industrial establishments.

       In the United States the leading oil producing states are Ohio, Texas, California, West Virginia, Pennsylvania and Indiana.

       Pennsylvania oil is of exceptionally high quality.

      Russia produces, in a small district near Baku, on the Caspian Sea, almost as much petroleum as is obtained in the entire United States, but, like the Texas and California oils, it is of low grade.

       Refined oil is shipped in this country by rail in barrels and in tank cars.  For shipment abroad, some oil is put in barrels, but large quantities both of crude and refined oils are shipped in bulk in tank steamers.  American kerosene oil is exported to all parts of the world.











       Gold is found in nearly all parts of the world.  The greatest producing districts are in the United States, South Africa and Australia.

       Gold usually occurs in minute particles disseminated through rocks, gravels or sands.

       When it is found in solid rock, the ore is removed from the mine, crushed by powerful machines, and treated in one of many ways to separate the valuable metal.

       The placer deposits, consisting of sand and gravel, generally in the beds of streams, have been formed by the forces of nature, from the rock beds.  The material which forms the placers was brought down by running water from the mountains, and the pebbles and heavy particles were not carried so far toward the sea as were the finer particles of dirt and sand.  Wherever there was any obstruction in the stream, or a level place, or a bend, the water dropped the heaviest part of its load.  The gold, being much heavier than the sand in proportion to the size of the particles, tended to collect in the deepest parts of the streams, in the eddies and wherever the water ran slowly. 

       When gold is discovered in any country the placer deposits are those which are first worked. The reason for this is that no expensive machinery is necessary.  A man with no experience can soon learn to wash the gravel in a pan and where the deposit is rich in gold, he may, even in such a primitive way, make a fortune, as men have done in the past in California, Australia and Alaska. A tin basin, or pan, for washing gold is seen in the lower right hand corner of this picture.  In using it a few handfuls of gravel are put in the basin which is then filled with water from the stream. The fine dirt at once mixes with the water which is poured off and the basin is refilled several times.  Soon nothing but the pebbles and the heavy particles are left.  The larger pebbles are picked out and a circular motion is given to the pan by the miner. This allows all the heavy particles to collect in one corner of the pan.  Here the gold, if there be any in the gravel, will be found when the pebbles are scraped away.

       This prospector in Vancouver having found by panning, a promising bed of gravel alongside a stream, has built a “grissely” so that he can wash more gravel in a day than can be done in a basin. A little below the surface he finds the gravel. Loosening it with the pick, seen in the center of the photograph, he places a pile of it in the upper end of the short sluice box which is supported on the wooden horse.  On the far side of the apparatus, close to the stream, he has dug a little pit in order to have a pool of water convenient.  He dips up the water and pours it on the pile of gravel in the sluice box, thus washing it onto the A-shaped grating at its end.  This grating is made of iron rods which allow all the small particles to pass through while the large stones fall down on both sides.  Below the grating is another sloping sluice box through which the water and mud escape.  Strips of wood are fastened diagonally in the bottoms of the sluice boxes and the particles of gold on account of their weight are caught and held in these grooves or “riffles” and are not washed away by the running water.

       The separation of gold from gravel is conducted in very much more extensive apparatus than this, when it is possible to open up a large bed of “pay dirt”.  The general principle is usually much the same however, the sluiceways merely being longer and the water being supplied by a running stream or from a reservoir in the mountains.











       This photograph of a logging scene shows the methods of cutting and hauling timber in the forests of British Columbia.  The oxen are hitched to the logs by chains and driven by a man locally known as the “bull puncher", who holds a high position in the camp. 

       There are various other means employed to transport the logs.  Whenever a large river is close by, the logs are hauled to it and floated down, generally rafted together.  Often donkey engines or light logging railroads haul them to the river. 

       In the northern states, where snow is plentiful all the logging is done in winter, because much larger loads can be hauled over the snow on sleds.  When there are no rivers near by, the hauling is now generally done by railroads. 

       The tall stumps, often seen in the western forests where timber has been cut, indicate a striking contrast in cutting methods to the plan usually pursued in the eastern part of the United States.  In the east, timber is cut as close to the ground as possible, in order to get the most lumber out of a tree.  Generally the trees on the Pacific coast are cut high to reach a narrower portion of the trunk, which is more easily worked and of a better quality than at a short distance from the ground.  Such stumps are seen in the center of the picture. 

       The whole lumber industry may be found conveniently divided into three departments, although two or all of them may be found in the same establishment.  These are the logging, the sawing and the planing.  The trees are felled in the forest, trimmed, cut into logs and transported to a sawmill. 

       In the sawmill the logs are cut up into rough lumber, such as beams, joists, scantlings, boards, shingles, laths, etc. 

       In the planing mill the rough lumber is planed to thickness, edged, ripped on smaller saws and manufactured into sash, doors, wainscoting, flooring, turnings, stair work, and by special machines into a great variety of different articles. 

       British Columbia, in the southwestern part of British America, is one of the richest sections of Canada.  Its greatest sources of wealth are its mines.  Next in importance are the forests.  British Columbia possesses the greatest compact area of merchantable timber on the North American continent.  As far north as Alaska the coast is heavily timbered, the forest line following the coast and fringing the mountain sides.  The total cut of timber exceeds 125,000,000 feet per annum.  There are several kinds of wood cut, the most important being Douglas fir.












       Indian corn or maize (Zea mays, Gramineae) is the most important cereal of Mexico as well as of the United States. In Prehistoric times, maize was, to many Indian tribes, the symbol of plenty, and the planting and harvesting were attended with symbolic dances and religious ceremonies. 

       North American Indians, Cliff Dwellers, Aztecs, Incas, and other races, all ground up the grain, some in stone mortars and some on “ mutates ” as this Indian woman in modern Mexico is doing.

       Mexico exports no corn, but imports considerable quantities from the United States. Nevertheless the total corn crop of Mexico is very large. The consumption is proportionally larger

       than in the United States, because a larger proportion of Mexicans use corn as one of their staple foods.

       Tortillas are the bread of the “ peons ” or common people. In making the “ tortilla ”, corn is first soaked in lime water, which loosens the hull, and is then ground for some time on a “metate”, a curved or flat stone slab. On this, it is rolled with a stone, shaped much like a rolling pin. In this photograph the younger woman is grinding corn on a metate. Small pieces of the dough are worked between the hands, tossed and patted and flattened out, until no thicker than a knife blade, after which they are thrown upon a hot “ comal ”, a flat iron affair something like a griddle, one of which is shown in the center of the picture. The cakes are never allowed to brown and are without salt or seasoning of any kind.

       The photograph is typical of life among the native Indians and half-breeds of Mexico. It shows us a scene in the chaparral district in summer time. All the cooking is done out of doors. The fuel consists of dry branches, chiefly from the mesquite tree;and a few crude earthen pots constitute the kitchen outfit. The blanket hung up on the tree to the left is the steady companion of the Mexican. The man leaning against the mesquite tree, wears a sombrero, the characteristic Mexican hat.

Maize was entirely unknown in Europe before the discovery of America, and the name corn was a general term which meant grain, including wheat, rye, oats, barley, millet, etc.

       Corn is raised now in all parts of the world where it will mature. In production of corn the United States exceeds all the rest of the world combined. Illinois and lowa are our principal corn states, while Kansas, Nebraska, Missouri, Indiana, Ohio and Texas also produce large amounts。

       玉米(学名:Zea mays,禾本科)是墨西哥和美国最重要的谷物。在史前时代的美国,对许多印地安人来说,它是富足的象征,种植和收割时都要举行象征性的舞蹈和宗教仪式。










       This photograph, taken in one of the great silver mines in Mexico, shows very clearly the primitive methods employed in getting out ore, even at the present day.  The native laborers,

       work by the dim and uncertain light of candles which are stuck in angles of the rock along the working face of the vein.  With chisels and sledge hammers they break down the rock, starting at the bottom and working upward toward the roof of the tunnel.  This is almost always easier than to work from above downward.  Occasional small blasts of powder or dynamite help along the work.  English speaking miners would say that the Mexican laborers are breaking down ore in a stope, this being the name applied to such a working face.

       In mining, the vein of ore is generally reached by a perpendicular shaft from which horizontal tunnels lead off.  In Mexico the mines are more generally worked on what is there

       called a "sistema de rato" or rat's plan—that is to say, burrowing after the vein wherever it leads.

      In some Mexican mines the work is done in a less primitive way and power drills are used to drive holes in the rock for blasts.  It is, however, often more economical to get out the ore in a very laborious fashion on account of the cheapness of labor and the high price of coal needed to run machinery.  The miners are well paid if they receive fifty cents a day, and coal is worth more than twenty dollars a ton.

       Ore veins are generally narrow, and it is necessary to remove large amounts of valueless

       rock in order to get out a comparatively small amount of ore.  To avoid unnecessary labor the

       material which is loosened from its place in the earth is sorted over and the parts which seem valuable are carefully separated and carried to the surface, as much as possible of the valueless rock being left underground.

       Silver ore as it comes from the mine is usually not at all attractive to the eye.  Only very rarely does the silver show itself in the form of minute scales or small wires and it is generally combined chemically with other substances so that its presence would be suspected only by one acquainted with ores.

       Mexico is, next to the United States, the greatest silver producing country of the world. Some of the rich deposits were worked even before the time of the Spanish conquest and the great wealth of the country in silver and gold was the chief cause for their invasion.  Hundreds of treasure ships loaded with bars of silver went from Mexico to Spain in the early days.  Some of the mines are of almost fabulous richness, one having produced silver to a value of over one hundred million dollars.
Guanajuato is one of the chief centers of the silver mining industry in Mexico.











       Cocoa and chocolate are made from the seeds of a small tree (Theobroma cacao, Slerculiaceae) which grows in the tropics. 
This picture shows one of the trees with a few fruits hanging on the large branches. Negro women seated under the tree are opening the fruits. They cut them with large knives, called "machetes", and take out the seeds together with the pulp in which they are imbedded. This is seen in the baskets on the ground. The seeds with the pulp surrounding them are left lying for a few days so that the pulp ferments or partly decays. Then the pulp is washed away. The clean seeds, each of which is perhaps an inch long, and three-eighths of an inch thick, are dried, usually in the sun, but sometimes by artificial heat. 
Cacao beans are roasted, ground to a powder, and made into cakes to form chocolate. For sweet chocolate, sugar and vanilla are added. Cacao beans are rich in a fatty oil which is partly removed when cocoa powder is manufactured.
Cacao beans are cultivated in most tropical countries.  The principal exporting countries are Ecuador, Venezuela, and Trinidad.
The picture shows two other negro women standing under a young banana tree, with large baskets on their heads, filled with cacao fruits. These they have just brought from near-by trees to be opened. This fashion of carrying things on the head is common to negroes in almost all countries. Negro women often tie a cloth around the head, like those in the picture.

       可可和巧克力是由一种小(学名:Theobroma cacao,草科)的种子制成的,生长在热带。








       The cacao tree (Theobroma cacao, Sterculiaceae) is a native of northwestern South America. It is cultivated as far south as Peru on the west coast, and as far as Bahia, Brazil, on the east coast and north through Mexico and the West Indies. It is grown also in Ceylon, Mauritius, and other islands of the Indian Ocean, Java and other parts of the East Indies, Porto Rico, Hawaii and the Philippines. The rather small tree, seldom reaching more than twenty feet in height, is often grown in the protecting shade of larger trees. Leaves, flowers and fruits are borne at all seasons of the year. In the West Indies there are two principal harvests, one in June and a more abundant one in December.

       The fruits are borne on the trunk of the tree and on the larger branches and when ripe are six to ten inches in length, of a yellowish or purplish color. Each contains fifty to seventy-five seeds or cacao beans enclosed in a pinkish-white, edible pulp.

       This photograph, taken in the island of Trinidad, shows the trunks and large branches of two cacao trees. The fruits show plainly, their short stems growing out directly from the branches and the trunk, some of them even down near the root of the tree.

       The laborer and the child seen in the picture are coolies from India. Many thousands of these people come from India to Trinidad and Jamaica to work on the plantations. They are generally brought over, under contract for a term of years and at the expiration of their time, most of them return home.

The man has in his hand a machete. These large knives are very common tools in most hot countries. Laborers in the West Indies use them for cutting sugar cane and bananas, for cutting down weeds and sometimes even for chopping off small trees.

       When the Spanish, under Cortez, conquered Mexico they found the Aztecs using cacao beans to make a beverage called “chocolatl” which, with its delightful flavor and aroma and its remarkable stimulating and nourishing qualities, came at once into high favor among the invaders. It was introduced into Spain by Cortez and within about a hundred years came into general favor in Europe. Tea and coffee were not introduced into Europe until later.

       The Aztecs valued the beans so highly that the emperor Montezuma had an immense storehouse for them, and they were commonly used as one form of money. This custom still prevails among certain Indian tribes in the interior of Guatemala, where cacao beans are common currency. The scientific name of the tree, Theobroma, means “Food for the gods.”

       In popular and commercial language it is necessary to be careful, for fear of confusing several articles the names of which are similar. Cacao beans, the seeds of the cacao tree, are very generally known as cocoa beans, and the tree is called the cacao tree. Cocoa and chocolate are prepared from these seeds. The familiar cocoanut is the product of an entirely different tree (the cocoanut palm), and coca or cocaine is extracted from coca leaves which are obtained from still another tree.

       可可树(学名:Theobroma Ara,梧桐科)原产于南美洲西北部,最南边能达到秘鲁西海岸,东至巴西的巴伊亚省海岸,北至墨西哥和西印度群岛。它还生长在斯里兰卡、毛里求斯和印度洋其它岛屿、爪哇和其它东印度群岛、波多黎各、夏威夷和菲律宾。可可树相当矮小,很少超过二十英尺高,通常生长在大树的树荫下。叶子、花朵和果实在一年四季都可以生长。在西印度群岛每年可收获两次,一次在六月,收获更多的一次在十二月。










       Commercial coffee is the seed of a small tree.  There are two cultivated varieties of this tree, the Arabian (Coffea arabica) and the Liberian (Coffea liberica, Rubiaceae).  The Arabian coffee tree was originally a native of Abyssinia and is now cultivated in all important coffee-producing countries.  Arabian coffee trees, in plantations, grow ordinarily about nine to twelve feet in height.  In some parts of the world, coffee trees are kept trimmed down and are not allowed to grow tall, but this is seldom done in America, where, as in the plantation seen in this photograph, the trees are generally allowed to grow freely.

       This picture shows a coffee picking scene on one of the large plantations of Brazil. The pickers are at work in the foreground and the plantation stretches away across the hills in the distance.  Behind the trees a large wagon stands, to which oxen are harnessed.  The mats spread out under the tree in the center are to prevent the berries dropping on the ground.  The pickers are often provided with flat baskets to suspend in front of them, and larger deep baskets or bags into which to empty the berries.  In some places the berries are simply shaken down on mats and gathered up.  The berries are then taken from the fields to be cleaned and dried.

       The ripe coffee berries are bright red, each one about the size of a cherry.  A soft outer pulp surrounds two yellow beans, lying with their flat sides together.  Each bean consists of a greenish kernel or seed enclosed successively by a very fine white skin (the “silver skin”) and a thick tough yellow covering known as the “parchment”.  The preparing of the beans on the plantations for shipment abroad begins with the bruising of the pulp and washing of the seeds.  These are then dried on large cement floors in the sun or less commonly by special drying machinery.  After drying, the seeds, which are still covered with the parchment, go through various machines which clean and polish them.
More than half of the world’s supply of coffee is grown in Brazil.  The remainder comes from various parts of tropical America and the East Indies. 








       Commercial coffee is the seed of a small tree. There are two cultivated varieties of this tree, the Arabian (Coffea arabica) and the Liberian (Coffea liberica, Rubiaceae). The Arabian coffee tree was originally a native of Abyssinia and is now cultivated in all important coffee producing countries. Brazil supplies three-fourths of the coffee used in the world, but large quantities are raised in other tropical countries also.

       The ripe fruits of the coffee tree resemble cherries in size and shape. They are of a bright scarlet color and grow clustered along the branches. In the berries, two yellow seeds or "beans" lie with their flat sides toward each other and enclosed in a pulp. Each bean or seed is covered first with a very thin membrane (the “silver skin”) and then with a thick, tough skin (the "parchment"). After the berries are picked from the branches, these coverings must be removed.

       In a few parts of the world, the berries are first dried and then the hardened outer shells are broken away. The following, however, is the more usual method. The coffee berries are carried from the fields to the "pulper", a machine in which the pulp is roughly crushed and washed away. Some pulp still adheres to the seeds. They are therefore washed in a large cistern such as is shown in the foreground of this photograph and left for two or three days to ferment. In this way the remaining particles of pulp become loose and can be washed off in the next cistern. During the washing, the dirty water is repeatedly drawn off, until the coffee beans, now covered by the tough yellowish parchment, are perfectly clean.

       The parchment coffee must be dried at once. On a well-equipped coffee plantation there are usually large cement floors, like those seen in the picture, where the coffee can be dried in the sun. On these large floors, “patios” as they are called, the beans are spread out. They are raked over from time to time in order that they may dry rapidly and uniformly.  Depending on the weather, the coffee dries in from ten to twenty days.

       To protect the beans from rain or dew, they are sometimes heaped up and covered over with large palm mats such as may be seen in this picture. In places where rains are frequent during the coffee harvest, the beans are dried on floors protected by roofs or else in drying machines, artificially heated.

       The dry coffee, covered with the parchment, is run through cleaning machines. The first one is a huller which crushes and winnows away the parchment. The next machine, a polisher, rubs off the thin underlying silver skin. These two machines are often combined into one.

       The thoroughly cleaned coffee, after being put in sacks, is ready for shipment.

       Before it can be used it must be roasted and ground. This is generally done only a short time before it is to be used.












       Commercial coffee is the seed of a small tree. There are two cultivated varieties of this tree, the Arabian (Coffea arabica) and the Liberian (Coffea liberica, Rubiaceae). The Arabian coffee tree was originally native in Abyssinia and is now cultivated in all important coffee-producing countries. The Liberian coffee tree originated on the west coast of Africa. It is a somewhat larger tree of sturdier growth, but is not so widely cultivated as the Arabian variety.

       Arabian coffee trees, in plantations, grow ordinarily about nine to twelve feet in height; the Liberian variety grows somewhat taller. Coffee of good flavor is raised most successfully on highlands in the tropics.

       The white blossoms of the coffee tree grow clustered along the branches and are succeeded by the green, immature fruit. When ripe, each fruit is red, resembling a cherry in size and color. The berries contain two seeds, each covered first by a thin membrane (the “silver-skin”), then by a thick, tough skin (the “parchment” or “cascara”), and the whole enclosed in a pulp which holds the two beans or seeds with their flat sides together. Some berries, growing on the same plants as the others, contain but one bean, which is round instead of flat. These round beans are preferred by many and are therefore sorted out and sold separately as “pearl” or “peaberry” coffee.

       When ripe, the berries are picked from the trees by hand. The preparing of the beans on the plantations for shipment abroad begins with the bruising and washing away of the pulp. The seeds are then dried on large cement floors in the sun or less commonly by special drying machinery. After drying, the seeds, which are still covered with the parchment, go through a machine which cleans and polishes them. There are very many commercial grades of coffee, and almost all of them have been named after the country or district in which that grade was at one time most largely grown. Mocha coffee, for instance, which comes from many countries, received its name from Mocha, in Arabia. Now, however, the names of famous coffee districts are used very largely by coffee growers of many countries for their own product, even if that only faintly resembles the grade indicated. Coffee merchants, therefore, do not buy by name, as that signifies nothing to them, but by appearance and actual tests of flavor.

       Different countries have different tastes and preferences. The United States prefers smallsized coffee beans, Europe prefers the larger sizes; the product of one district may be prized highly in one country and neglected in another. An even, dark-greenish color, and an aroma free from any strong after-flavor are everywhere considered marks of a first-class coffee.

       Coast Rica produces coffee of fine quality. The plantations are mostly on the Gulf slopes of the mountains, on fertile lands. They are usually managed in an efficient manner.

       More than half of the world’s supply of coffee is grown in Brazil. The rest comes from various parts of tropical America and the East Indies.











       Cacao beans, from which chocolate and "cocoa" are made, are the seeds of a small tree, (Theobroma cacao, Sterculiaceae). The large pods, each of which contains from forty to eighty seeds, grow out from the stem and larger branches of the trees. 
In different countries the methods of preparing cacao beans for market vary greatly. The following is one of the most common. The pods are cut from the trees and piled in dry places for several days. The seeds are then taken out and again left in heaps for a number of days, until a definite degree of fermentation has taken place. This, it is said, improves the quality of the beans. The beans are often colored by coating them with red clay or some other red pigment, partly to keep off insects, and partly because red beans sell better than light colored ones. Next the beans are ready for drying, an operation which requires the greatest care. In most countries cacao beans are dried in the open air on hard smooth earth or on mats. Modern plantations build large cement drying floors, which may at any time be covered by roofs running on rollers, as seen in the picture.  On these large floors, called “patios" in tropical America, the beans are spread out thinly and raked over for at least ten days until they are perfectly dry. In places where the sunshine is not constant enough, artificial heat is employed. The dried beans are packed in sacks for shipment from the producer to the factory. In the factories where chocolate and cocoa are made, the beans are roasted, broken up, cleaned, ground and otherwise prepared.
Trinidad produces cacao of high quality, and many plantations on that island are managed in accordance with thoroughly up-to-date methods. The drying floors seen in this picture are built on foundations which raise them several feet above the ground. The roofs are so arranged that they can be slid over the drying floors at short notice in case of rain. The laborers who are at work turning over the beans are East Indian coolies.
The laborers in Trinidad are of two classes-negroes of African descent and Malay coolies from the East Indies, imported under contract for a term of years. These Malays, most of whom are Mohammedans, are an industrious class and at the expiration of their contracts not infrequently remain on the island and make good settlers.

       可可豆,用于制作巧克力和可可粉的原料,是由一种小(学名:Theobroma cacao,草科)的种子制成的。比较大的豆荚中可以含有40到80粒的种子,一般直接从树茎或比较大的分枝上长出。