返回费城世界工业展二

时间:2013-07-06



25.《采摘棉花》美国阿肯色州

PICKING COTTON

ARKANSAS

       COTTON (Gossypium species, Malvaceae), a relativeof the hollyhocks and mallows, is cultivated in many tropical and semi-tropical regions.  The fiber consists of the hairs covering the seeds of these plants, and is the most important of all vegetable fibers. Two chief varieties are cultivated in the United States: sea-island cotton, which develops on the low, sandy islands that fringe the shores of South Carolina and Georgia, and upland cotton, which is grown in the Gulf states and the interior and higher lands. The former is used for thread, laces and fine cambrics, while the latter enters into the manufacture of a large part of other cotton fabrics in all countries.

       The United States produces more than half of all the cotton of the world. Other great producing regions are India and the East Indies, China and Egypt. The United States exports about two-thirds of its cotton to be manufactured in Europe.

       The cotton is contained in four or five-parted capsules, known as “bolls”. Before the cotton bolls are mature they are egg-shaped, but when they are ripe, they split wide open from the top, and a large white tuft of cotton protrudes from each chamber. As the bolls ripen throughout the summer and fall, the fields must be picked over many times. The pickers, who are generally negroes in most of our cotton states, or Mexicans in Texas, hang long sacks over their shoulders. Using both hands, they pick from the bolls the bunches of cotton containing the seeds, and fill the sacks which they carry. When the picking sacks get too heavy to drag, they are emptied into larger sacks at the end of the rows, or directly into a wagon.

       The wagon takes the loose seed cotton to the cotton gin. There the seeds are taken out by machinery and the cotton fiber or “lint” is pressed into bales. The bales are shipped to the spinning mills where the fiber is spun into yarn.

       Cotton yarns are made into cloths of various kinds, such as muslin, calico, gingham, cambric, India linon, canton flannel, etc., as well as into thread, string and rope.

Cotton seeds, which were in former years a waste material, are now a very valuable by-product. Some are used for planting, some to feed cattle, but most of them are pressed to obtain cottonseed oil.

       The oil is used for cooking, replacing lard; as a table oil, ether adulterating olive oil or as a substitute for it; and for making soaps and other less important products. The oil-cake left after the oil has been pressed from the seeds is an excellent food for cattle.

       Cotton, cottonseed oil and cottonseed oil-cake are all largely exported from the United States to Europe.

       棉花(学名:Gossypium,葵科)是蜀葵和亲缘植物,种植在许多热带和亚热带地区。棉花纤维由包裹着棉花种子的茸毛组成,是所有植物纤维中最重要的一种。在美国种植的主要有两个品种:海岛棉,生长在南卡罗莱纳州和佐治亚州边缘的低矮沙质岛屿上,和陆地棉,生长在海湾地区、内陆和更高的土地上。其半成品主要是棉带、棉线和细棉布,之后被送入全国各地的大型加工厂制作成尺寸更大的棉织品。

       美国生产世界上一半以上的棉花,其它比较大的产区还有印度及东印度群岛、中国和埃及。美国大约出口三分之二它们种植的棉花到欧洲用于工业生产。

       棉花被装在称作为“棉铃”的4到5个分开的荚中。在其成熟之前,棉铃是卵形的,但当它们成熟的时候,荚便由顶部裂开,从每个囊室里长出一大块白色的棉簇。在整个夏天和秋天,棉铃不断地成熟,所以在棉地里必须要采摘好多次。采摘工大部分是黑人,或德州的墨西哥人,他们肩上挂着长长的麻袋,用双手从棉铃上挑出含有种子的棉花束,然后装满他们所携带的麻袋。当采摘袋变得太重而不能拖动时,它们会在田地的末端,把它倒进更大的袋子里,或者直接装进一辆马车。

       马车将会载着籽棉送到扎棉机工厂,种子被机械取出,棉花纤维被压成棉包。这些棉包会被运到纺纱厂,在那里被纺成纱线。

       棉纱可制成各种不同的布,如细纱布、棉布、格子布、细棉布、印度细布、法兰绒等,或者棉带,棉线和棉绳

       棉花种子在过去一直被当做废料,现在已经成为一种非常有价值的副产品,有的用于种植,有的用作牛的饲料,但其中大部分会被制成棉籽油,代替猪油用于烹饪;或作为沙拉油,作为橄榄油的掺假物,或直接替代橄榄油;还可以用来制作肥皂和其他不太重要的产品。从种子中榨出油后留下的油饼,是牛最好的食物。

       棉花、棉籽油和棉籽油饼被大量从美国出口到英国。



26.《棉花轧花机》美国阿肯色州

COTTON GINS

ARKANSAS

       Conon consists of fine twisted hairs which cover and are attached to the seeds of the cotton plant (Gassypium species Malvaceae).  Seeds and fibers are picked together from the plants.  Before spinning the fiber into yarn, it must be separated from the seeds.  This separation is called ginning.

       Modern cotton gins are almost all of the type called the "saw gin", invented by Eli Whitney in 1793.

       This photograph shows an upper room in a gin house in Arkansas.  On each side there are three ginning machines.  The three in series on the right hand side are fed with seed cotton by the pipe directly over them.  A farmer's wagon loaded with seed cotton stands outside the building, and the end of this pipe dips into it.  A powerful fan, located in the casing, one corner of which shows in the lower right hand edge of the picture, creates a strong suction through this pipe. 

       By this means the cotton is unloaded from the wagon, drawn through the pipe, and fed into the gins through the oblong upright chutes numbered 1, 2 and 3.  There is an automatic cut-off valve located in the pipe just above the fan, which regulates the current of air and thus keeps feeding the seed cotton to the gins, as fast as it is needed.

       Below the chutes the machines seem to be divided horizontally into three parts. The upper part is the feeder, a receptacle for holding the cotton and regulating its supply to the actual gin. The middle part, against which the handle of a lever shows plainly, is the gin stand proper.  It contains perhaps seventy circular saws revolving rapidly, with their teeth projecting through slits in a grating.  This grating is too small to allow the cotton seeds to pass through, but the teeth of the saws catch the lint and pull it from the seeds.  The lint is drawn through the grate and then brushed off from the teeth of the saws by large revolving brushes.  The blast from these brushes blows the cotton fiber through a lint flue, which is not seen in the picture, but is located behind the machines. The lint is blown through the lint flue to a condenser where it forms an even bat or layer and then drops into the baling press where eventually many layers will be made into a bale.

       The lower section of the machine is a seed hopper into which the stripped seeds fall.  It connects with a conveyor which takes the cotton seeds to a storage house.

       The gins at the left hand side of the picture are of a little different pattern.  Near the ceiling and above these gins there is a large box called a beater, where the seed cotton is given a preliminary cleaning to get rid of leaves and twigs.  From the beater the cotton is carried by a moving belt to the feeders.  When the feeders are filled the overflow drops on the floor in the background and can be taken up from there and fed again to the machines by the overflow pipe which runs along the ceiling almost in the center of the picture.

       On account of this overflow arrangement the farmer's wagon can be unloaded as fast as the pipes can draw in the cotton and do not have to wait while the ginning is being done, as is necessary with machines fed in the other way.  All of the gins shown in this picture are not of the most common type, but are what are called double-breasted gins.  In them the cotton is first pulled by a revolving spiked roller through a set of grates about three quarters of an inch apart for the purpose of separating bolls, sticks, etc.  Then the cleaned seed cotton goes into the inner breast where the saws running through a closer set of grates, separate the fiber from the seed.  Double-breasted gins are needed only in places where the cotton plants grow very tall and rank, and the cotton is picked full of sticks, bolls and trash.

       The workmen in the center are cleaning up the floor and putting in a bag some seeds which escaped from the hoppers.  In the best gin houses the seed is not allowed to escape thus, and such cleaning up is seldom necessary. 

       棉花纤维来自于缠绕棉花植株(学名:Gossypium,葵科)种子的纤维。在成棉线之前,需要通扎棉的工序将其纤维与种子分离。大多数使用的扎棉机被称作锯齿轧棉机”,由伊莱·惠特尼于1793年明。

       照片中的房间是位于阿肯色州一处扎棉机工厂的楼上。房间两侧各有3台扎棉机,右边的一排扎棉机将会被来自于上方管道中的包着纤维的棉花种子——籽棉辆满载着籽棉的农夫马车在工厂外停着,这根管子的末端插入其中。照片右下角可以看到装有强大动力风扇的盒子的一个角,风扇将会在上面提到的管道中制造强大的吸力。

       这意味着马车上的籽棉被管道中的吸力,通过照片右上方标有1、2、3的长方形泄槽,被卸入轧棉机。风扇上方的管道内有一个可以自动关闭的阀门,用于调节管道内空气的流速,从而控制籽棉传输的速度

       泄槽下方的机器可以被竖直分为三部分,最上面的是进料器,可以暂时储存籽棉从而调整其进入机器的速度。在照片中紧靠着一根杠杆把手的是机器中间的部分,轧棉机机座。它里面大概有七十个快速旋转的圆锯,锯的牙齿在格栅的缝隙中凸出来。格栅间的缝隙太小以至于棉花种子无法通过,但是锯齿将会钩住棉花纤维的线头,从棉花种子上拽下来。纤维穿过格栅后会被一个旋转的大刷子从锯齿上刷下来,从而吹进一个电容器中形成扁平的棉胎,掉落进楼下的棉花打包机。在打包机中,许多许多层棉胎将会被压缩成一个棉包。

       机器的最下面是一个盛放脱落种子的料斗,其连接的传送带,直接把棉花种子送入存储房。

       照片左边的扎棉机样式有一点不同,扎棉机上方靠近天花板的地方还有一个大盒子,称为搅打器。在那里对籽棉进行了初次的清洁,使籽棉与棉叶和棉枝脱离开来。之后籽棉由一个移动皮带从打器运载到扎棉机的进料器中。当进料器被填满后会有一些掉落在地板上,工人可以从那里捡起来,通过照片中间的管道再次被吸入扎棉机中。

       这种对于溢出棉花的设计可以保证民运棉的卸速度一直保持和管道的吸力一快,而不是等到所有的棉花都完成去籽,所以有另外一种进料方式是非常必要的。照片中所有的扎棉机都不是最常的类型,而是被称为对襟扎棉机。首先籽棉先要被旋转的齿辊拖进一组格栅中,格子的距离大概四分之三英寸,主要为了分隔棉铃和棉枝等异物。然后这些被初步清理过的籽棉才会进入的内部,被锯从排列更加密集的格栅中将纤维与种子分离。对襟扎棉机主要被需要的区域是,那里产的棉花植株非常高且茂盛,被采集的棉花含有很多的棉铃、棉枝和异物。

       站在照片中间的工人们正在打扫地板,将从料斗中逃落的种子装入一个袋子里。在最先进的扎棉机工厂中,种子是不允许掉落的,所以类似的打扫很少见的。



27.《棉花打包》美国阿肯色州

BALING COTTON

ARKANSAS

       Cotton fiber, or lint, consists of the seed hairs of the cotton plant (Gossypium sp. Malvaceae). The southern states of the United States produce more than half of the cotton in the world.

       After cotton is picked from the plants, the fibers must be separated from the seeds. This is done by a cotton gin. The name “cotton gin” is applied not only to the machines which separate the fibers from the seeds, but also to the large buildings which contain the ginning machines and the presses where the cotton is made into bales.

       This photograph shows the lower floor of such a building, with the press at work. On the left is the press, a strong box full of loose cotton. The cotton comes down through pipes from the gins on the floor above. Whenever the press is full, the workman shuts off the supply of cotton from the box above and turns on the steam, which forces the large piston down in to the press. Then the pressure is released, more cotton is admitted, and another layer pressed in, until sufficient lint to make up a bale has been pressed.

       There are always two press boxes side by side, which are arranged to revolve on a platform. When one box is pressed full, the platform is revolved and the empty box takes its place. In this way, one bale is being prepared while another is being tied.

       The two men in the center of the picture have just tied a bale which had previously been pressed at the left. The tying consist simply in adjusting the top of the jute bagging, which lined the press, and slipping six steel bands, known as “ties”, around the bale, through openings left in the box for that purpose. After the ties are fastened, the box is opened, and the pressure from the compressed cotton makes the bands very tight. The bale of cotton, weighing about five hundred pounds, is now ready for shipment.

       This is the ordinary method of pressing. When shipped by rail, the bales are often reduced to one-half their size by a more powerful press, known as the “compress”. Besides the square bales, round or cylindrical bales are made to some extent.

       The bales of cotton are bought up by the spinning mills, where cotton is made into yarn and thread to be later woven into cotton fabrics, such as muslin, calico, gingham, cambric, India linon canton flannel, etc., or into laces, string or rope.

       Cotton seeds, which were in former years a waste material, are now a very valuable by-product. Some are used for planting, some for fodder, but most of them are pressed to obtain cottonseed oil.

       The oil is used for cooking, replacing lard; as a table oil, either adulterating olive oil or as a substitute for it; and for making soaps and other less important products. The oil-cake left after the oil has been pressed from the seeds is an excellent food for cattle.

       棉花纤维来自于是棉花植株(学名:Gossypium,葵科)的种子纤维。美国南部各州的棉花量占世界棉花量的一半以上。

       当棉花从植株上取下后,纤维必须与种子相分离。 “轧棉机”的名称不仅适用于将纤维与种子分离的机器,而且也适用于放置棉机和打包机的工厂

       这张照片显示的是在这种工厂的底层,打包机正在工作。左边是压力机,里面装满了松的棉花纤维。棉花纤维在工厂上一层的棉机中分离出来后,从管道进入打包机。每当装满棉花,工人就关掉棉花的供应,打开蒸汽引擎,迫使大活塞向下挤压棉花。活塞挤压棉花的压力释放后,打包机内又会有空间放入更多的棉花。再次挤压,直到足够打成一包的大小。

       打包机往往有两个挤压箱靠在一起,在一个平台上旋转。当一个箱子压满后,平台旋转,空箱子占据它的位置。这样当一包棉花正在被挤压,另一包将会被捆绑。

       照片中间两个人刚刚绑好的一包棉花,正是从左边的箱子里取出的。捆绑的方式非常简单,仅仅是调整麻袋子的顶部,让棉包将其填满,然后打开挤压盒左部,滑入六根钢带包裹住棉包。固定好钢带后,打开挤压盒,压缩棉包的压力将会释放出来绷紧钢带。这包重约五百磅的棉花就可以装船了。

       这是最原始的打包方式。当需要通过铁路运输时,包通常会被更强大的打包机压缩到一半大小。形状除了正方体,有时也会被压成球形或圆柱形。

       这些棉包会被送到纺纱厂,用于纺成纱线或者细线。然后在被编织成棉织物,如细纱布、棉布、格子布、细棉布、印度细布、法兰绒等,或者棉带,棉线和棉绳

       棉花种子在过去一直当做废料,现在已经成为一种非常有价值的副产品,有的用于种植,有的用作饲料,但其中大部分会被制成棉籽油,代替猪油用于烹饪;或作为沙拉油,作为橄榄油的掺假物,或直接替代橄榄油;还可以用来制作肥皂和其他不太重要的产品。从种子中榨出油后留下的油饼,是牛最好的食物。



28.《蒙哥马任市棉花市场美国阿拉巴马州蒙哥马利市

COTTON MARKET

MONTGOMERY.ALABAMA

       Cotton fiber, or lint, consists of the seed-hairs of the cotton plant ( Gossypium species, Malvaceae).

       After cotton is picked from the plants, the fibers must be separated from the seeds. This is done by a cotton gin. The name "catton gin is applied not only to the machines which separate the fibers from the seeds, but also to the large buildings which contain the ginning machines and the presses where the cotton is made into bales.

       The southern states of the United States produce more than half of the cotton raised in the world.

       This photograph shows a public square in Montgomery Alabama, where the farmers come with bales of cotton to sell. Each of them raised the cotton on his farm, took it to the gin and had the seeds removed and the cotton made into bales. It is a common custom in the South, to takethe cotton to the nearest town to sell it.

       It will be seen that almost all the people in the picture are negroes. Alabama has a very large negro population. The few white men seen in the picture, walking among the wagons, are probably the buyers. Each carries a sharp knife, with which to “sample” the bales.  They slash deeply through the bagging, pull out a handful of cotton, look at it, and state their price. As the sample is always taken from the same place in the bale and everybody knows it, the farmers generally put the cleanest and finest cotton where it will be taken for the sample. The buyer knows that of course, so that the process of sampling is usually a mere farce.

       Almost the entire trade in cotton in the South lies at present in the hands of middlemen. In other words, the farmers do not sell the cotton directly to the manufacturers, but to speculators who try to buy it from the farmers when the prices are low and to sell to the mills when the prices are higher. These middlemen are often the ginners, or the grocery-men. The poorer farmers especially negroes, can rarely afford to hold the cotton themselves and wait until prices are favorable, as they need the money at once. Many farmers, therefore, sell their bales directly from the gin, and the middlemen frequently make large profits when the price of cotton rises. 

       A striking feature in the picture are the mules. There is not one team of horses in sight. Mules are generally preferred in the South for all hard work, because they have usually more endurance than horses and they generally eat less.

       棉花纤维来自于是棉花植株(学名:Gossypium,葵科)的种子纤维。美国南部各州的棉花量占世界棉花量的一半以上。

       当棉花从植株上取下后,纤维必须与种子相分离。 “棉机”的名称不适用于将纤维与种子分离的机器,而且也适用于放置棉机和打包机的工厂

       美国南部各州生产着世界上一半以上的棉花,这张照片展示了阿拉巴马州蒙哥马的一个公共交易场所,那里的农民带着一捆捆棉花来卖。他们都在自己的农场里种植棉花,用扎棉机将棉花种子摘掉,把棉花纤维打成棉包,来这里进行交易。在美国南方,把棉花带到最近的城镇去卖是一种普遍的习俗。

       这幅照片中可以看到,几乎所有的人都是黑人,阿拉巴马州有很多的黑人族群。照片中看到的几个白人,在马车中行走,他们很可能是买家。每个人都带着一把锋利的刀,用它从棉包中“取样”。他们会对装棉包的麻袋猛砍一刀,然后从深深的伤口中掏出一把棉花,看看品质后报出价格。因为棉花样品每次都会从棉包的同一个位置取出,而且每个人都知道在哪。所以农场主通常把最干净、最上等的棉花放在那里,等到被作为样品取走。买方当然也是知道的,所以洽谈的过程通常只是一场闹剧。

       目前南方的棉花交易,几乎全部都在中间商手中。在其它地区,农民并不直接将棉花卖给制造商,而是卖给投机者。他们试图在价格较低时向农民购买棉花,而在价格较高时将棉花卖给工厂。这些中间商往往是扎棉机工厂老板,或者是食品杂货商。贫穷的农民,特别是黑人,很少有人能够自己持有棉花等待价格上涨,因为他们马上需要钱花。因此许多农民会直接出售,而当棉花价格上涨时,中间商往往赚到大笔钱。

       还有一处比较吸引人的是,照片中看到并不是一群马,而是骡子。骡子在南方各州作为苦力更为收到欢迎,因为它们比马耐力更强,而且吃的更少。



29.《水稻收割》美国路易斯安那州

HARVESTING RIOE

LOUIBIANA

       Rice is one of the oldest cereals in cultivation and is, in southeastern Asia, the principal food of the inhabitants. The plant (Oryza saliva, Gramineae) is a grass which grows in swampy ground.

       It is cultivated in fields which can be kept flooded during the period of growth.

There are hundreds of varieties of rice, varying in color, size, hardness, hairiness of the ears, and many other characters.

      The height of the rice plant varies greatly in different localities. In many places it grows to a height of only about three feet, as may be seen in this picture. In South Carolina, the Golden rice is usually from five to nine feet tall, l and in cutting this, three feet or more of stubble are left on the ground. In India, in some districts where the water is deep, it may grow to a height of more than fifteen feet.

      While tropical Asia is the main producer of rice, that grown in the United States is of superior quality and commands a high price. Louisiana now produces half of the rice grown in the United States; Texas, South Carolina, North Carolina and Georgia as well as others of our southern states are important producers.

       In Louisiana and Texas, the rice fields are on the coastal prairies extending from twenty to ninety miles inland from the Gulf. These are dry lands, situated above flood-level and can be worked by heavy modern farm machinery, such as is used on our western wheat fields. Large gang plows drawn by mules prepare the soil, the seed is sown by machines, self-binding mowers cut the ripe grain, and steam threshers working on the fields separate the grain from the straw.

       The fields are flooded during the growing season just as in other countries. Dams around the edges of the fields retain the water, which is pumped up from the rivers and lagoons and conducted to the fields in earthen flumes raised above the level of the land. Before harvesting, the pumps stop work, the dams are cut, and in a few days the land is dry.

       The machines shown here are reapers and binders. They cut the grain (seen standing on the left), pass it automatically across the machines over a carrier to the right side, tie it in bundles and throw these from the fork to the ground to be picked up by the laborers.

       In the Carolinas and Georgia, the rice fields lie in the tide water belts which would naturally be overflowed at every high tide. There, the rivers are held between levees, which have sluices in them. Owing to the wetness of the land there, farm machinery can not be used.

       After rice is threshed, it must still be hulled and polished before it can be used for food. The hulling machine removes the husk, and the polishing machine takes off a thin dark skin from the grain, and rubs it until all the yellowish outside coat has been rubbed off, l and the grain appears white and glossy.

       大米是世界上最古老的谷物之一,也是居民的主要食物。水稻植株(学名:Oryza sativa,禾本科),是一种生在湿地上的像草一的植物。在生,培育其的农田可以保持一直淹水的状

       水稻有几百个品种,可以按不同的、尺寸、硬度、穗上的茸毛等多其它特点来区分。

       不同地区的水稻株高差异很大,在多地方它只到大三英尺高,就像这张图中所看到的那。在南卡州,金色大米通常有五到九英尺高。在切割,地上会留下三英尺或更多的残茬。在印度一些水源丰沛的地区,水稻实际可以到超十五英尺的高度。

       亚洲热带地区是水稻的主要生产国,而在美国种植的稻米质量优良,价格昂贵。美国现在一半的水稻,种植在路易斯安那州;德州、南卡罗来纳州、北卡罗来纳州和乔治亚州,以及其它南部各州也是重要的种植地。

       在路易斯安那州和德州,稻田位于沿海的大草原上,距离湾区只有二十至九十英里。这是一片干旱的土地,位于洪水位之上,可以用重型的现代农机耕作,就像我们西部的麦地一样。骡子拉着犁为田地松土,种子由机器播种,自动割草机切割成熟的谷物,蒸汽脱粒机在田间将稻子与稻杆分开。

       和其它国家一样,农田在生长季节会被淹没,农田边缘的土坝用来水,这些水是从河流和泻湖中抽来,然后通过在地上挖的,高于土地表面的引水槽引流至稻田里。在收获之前,水泵停止工作,土坝被切开,几天后稻田就干涸了。

       照片里的机器是收割机和割捆机,左侧的机器切断水稻,然后通过传送带输送到右侧的机器里,然后被捆成一束,透过叉子丢在地上,由被工人们捡起来。

       在卡罗莱纳州和佐治亚州,稻田位于潮水带,当每次潮水涨到过高时,稻田里的谁都会过剩。在那里,河流被夹在堤坝之间,堤坝中有水闸。由于那里的土地过于湿润,所以农业机械无法使用。

       稻谷经过脱粒之后,还必须经过去壳和抛光才能当作食物。脱壳机除去外壳,抛光机从谷粒上剥下一层薄薄的深色谷皮,直到所有黄色的外壳都被磨掉,谷粒看起来又白又有光泽才行。



30.《收获亚麻》美国华盛顿

   HARVESTING FLAX

      WASHINGTON

       The flax plant (Linum usitatissimum, Linaceae) is cultivated for two distinct products, the fiber and the seed.
       
Flax seed is the source of linseed oil, so largely used in oil paints. Flax, raised for seed, is allowed to grow to maturity. The fiber is then of ittle value and the plants are cut by a machine.
       
Flax fiber is obtained from the bast or inner bark of the stems of the plant, and plants raised for fiber are pulled out by the roots when sill green. The seeds, not being ripe, are not rich in oil.
       
This picture shows the pulling of flax in the state of Washington.
       
Several processes are necessary to prepare the fiber; first, the “retting”, which puts the stalk into such condition that the woody portions may be easily removed; second, the "breaking", during which most of the woody portion drops out; third, "scotching”, by which the remaining woody matter and the short ends of fiber are scraped off; and fourth, “hetchling" or "hackling", by which the flax is torn into fine fibers. Formerly all this work was done by hand, and even now so much manual labor is connected with the preparation that the cultivation of the plant for its fiber is limited to countries where labor is cheap.
       
Belgium produces the best quality, the Courtrai flax. The soft, slow-running water of the river Lys is well suited for the retting process. Russia produces more than one-half of the world's supply, but as it is dew-retted it is poorer in quality than that from Belgium. ltaly, France and Holland produce some of the finest flax, while Egypt furnishes a coarse but extremely long fiber. Ireland does not grow as much as formerly. Japan has introduced the cultivation of flax, and it has also been experimented with in the Australian colonies, where there is a wide range of soil and climate suited to its growth.
       
In the United States, flax is generally grown for its seed. The cultivation for fiber in this country is usually not profitable. Its cultivation has, nevertheless, begun to attract some attention in Michigan, Minnesota and the Puget Sound region, where the temperature and humidity are about the same as in Belgium and Ireland.
       
Flax fiber is spun into thread for sewing, and yarns for weaving linen goods.


       Nearly all the best flax manufactures, such as fine linens and laces, are imported from Europe.

       亚麻植株(学名:Linum usitatissimum,亚麻科)主要有两种产品,纤维和种子。

       亚麻的种子是亚麻籽油的来源,亚麻籽油主要用做油漆的原料。剩下亚麻茎中的纤维价值不高,整株亚麻会被机器收割。

       亚麻纤维是从茎的韧皮部或内皮中获得的。为了纤维而种植的亚麻,当它还是绿色时候,就会被连根拔起亚麻的种子此时还没有成熟,所以含油量不高。

这幅图片显示了华盛顿州亚麻被拔起的情景。

       提取亚麻纤维需要几个过程:第一步“浸渍”,它可使茎中的木头更容易被去除;第二步“折断”,在这个过程中大部分木本部分脱落;第三步“剥落”,剩下的多余木头物质和短的纤维被刮掉;第四步“孵化”,通过它把植物撕成细纤维。之前所有的这些工作都是由手工完成的,即使是现在,如此之多的体力劳动都与种植工作相关,因此亚麻纤维的种植仅限于劳动力便宜的国家。

       比利时生产最好品质的考特赖亚,因为莱斯河的缓慢流动的河水非常适合于浸渍过程。俄罗斯生产超过世界一半的亚麻,但由于那里是用露水浸渍做成的亚麻纤维质量不如比利时。意大利、法国和荷兰也生产一些最好品质的亚麻,而埃及可以提供一种粗糙但非常长的纤维。日本引进了亚麻种植,澳大利亚也进行了试种,那里有适合其生长的大片土壤和气候。

       在美国,亚麻通常是为获取种子而种植的,因为在这里,亚麻纤维的种植通常是无利可图的。然而,在密歇根州、明尼苏达州和普吉特湾区,亚麻纤维的种植已开始引起一些农场的注意,那里的温湿度与比利时和爱尔兰大致相同。

       亚麻纤维被纺成线用于缝纫,纱用于编织亚麻布。几乎所有最好的亚麻产品,如细麻布和网织品,都是从欧洲进口的。



31.《无烟煤粉碎厂》美国宾夕法尼亚州谢南多厄河

COAL BREAKER

SHENANDOAH, PA.

       Anthracite coal, after it comes from the mine, is broken and sorted to various sizes before it is sold. This work is generally done at or near the mines.

      In this photograph, the huge sloping shed-like structure in the center is the breaker. The coal is brought here from the mine, and enters at the top of the building. It passes first between powerful rollers with sharp teeth which break the large lumps of coal to pieces. Then it slides down a long incline, passing over many gratings of successive coarseness. The gratings are made of iron bars placed at certain distances apart. In the first grating, the bars are very close together and only the fine dust sifts through. The next grating has bars half an inch apart and what is sold as buckwheat coal passes between them. Next, pea coal goes through a three-fourths inch grating, nut coal through a one and one-eighth inch grating, and stove, egg, furnace, steamboat and lump coal through bars two inches, two and five-eighths, three and one-half, five inches, and seven inches apart respectively.

       As the coal slides down along the gratings, it is picked over by the breaker boys, who sit on benches above the coal, picking out and throwing aside the pieces of slate and rocky matter which happen to be mixed with it.

       The slate and trash are piled up on the dump, which in this picture is seen at the right hand side. On top of the dump is a framework supporting two large wheels by which cars filled with slate are drawn up the incline to be emptied.

       The coal from the breaker is usually washed with water to rid it of dust and other impurities before it is put on the market. In this picture the washery is located at the extreme left and near it is a great heap of coal dust or culm.

      Until within recent years the culm was piled up as valueless. Considerable quantities of it are now used for firing boilers. In Europe, coal dust (mostly bituminous) is mixed with tar or other cementing material and made into briquettes for use as fuel.

In the foreground of the picture are seen railway hopper cars loaded with coal ready for shipment.

        Pennsylvania produces nearly all of the anthracite coal mined in the world.

       无烟煤从矿井被挖出来后,先会被碎裂成不同的大小,然后分类去售卖,这项工作一般在矿场附近完成。

       在这张照片中,中间巨大的倾斜的棚屋结构就是碎煤机。煤炭是从矿井运来的,然后从建筑物的顶部进入。煤炭首先通过带有利牙齿的强大滚轮,将大块煤碳破碎成碎块。然后这些碎煤块从一个长斜面滑下,路过许多连续的不同粗糙度的栅栏。栅栏是由许多铁棒按照特定的距离分开放置而组成的。在第一组栅栏铁棒之间的距离非常近,只有细小的煤粉才会被。第二组栅铁棒之间的距离有半英寸,被筛选出来的煤会以荞麦煤的名称就行售卖。接下来,粒煤将会通过四分之三英寸的栏,小块煤将会穿过二英寸的栏,炉煤、蛋煤、冶金煤、蒸汽船煤和大块煤将会分别通过二英寸、二又八分之五英寸、三点五英寸、五英寸和七英寸的栏。

当煤块沿着栅栏向两侧滑落,会被坐在长凳上的男孩重新挑选出来,还会将与煤块掺在一起的石片和石块挑出来,扔到一旁。

       石块和废物则被堆放在垃圾场上,在这张照片中右侧的就是。在垃圾场顶部,是支撑着两条垃圾车轨道的框架,装满石板的垃圾车排列停靠在轨道斜坡上被清空

       破碎机上的煤在进入市场以前,通常会用水冲洗,除去灰尘和其它杂质。这种照片中的洗涤间坐落在最左边,其旁边就是一堆煤尘和废煤。最近几年之前,废煤仍然毫无价值而被堆积如山。但是考虑到其巨大的数量,现在会被用作于烧锅炉。在欧洲,无烟煤的煤尘会和焦油,或其它粘合材料混合在一起做成煤饼,用作于燃料。

       照片前方可以看到,铁路上停着准备运输的装载着煤炭的火车车厢宾夕法尼亚州几乎生产世界上所有的无烟煤。



32.《煤矿的入口》美国西维吉尼亚州费尔蒙特

  ENTRANOE TO A COAL MINE

      FAIRMONT, WEST VIRGINIA

       After the experienced miners loosen the coal from its place in the earth, it is loaded on mine cars by miners' helpers. The mine cars run on small tracks, and in this mine are drawn out in trains by an electric mine locomotive, which gets its power from an overhead wire. Mules, formerly used exclusively, are still employed in many mines for hauling the cars. The mine cars are drawn out to the “tipple" and the bituminous coal is often dumped directly into railroad cars for shipment. Spurs from the main railroad lines sometimes run for miles to the large mines. There are several railroads in the United States whose main business is the transportation of coal.
       
All mines are not so conveniently located as this one. Here the coal "outcrops" along the side of a hill and the seam runs in almost horizontally, so that the cars run on a level. Some beds of coal are deep down in the earth and can be reached only by perpendicular shafts, to which the coal is brought in mine cars, and up which it is hoisted in elevators to the surface of the ground.
       
That this mine is well ventilated is shown by the naked lamps to be seen on the miners' hats. Some mines have in them dangerous explosive gases (“fire-damp") which make it necessary for the miners to use safety lamps. In these the flame is surrounded by wire gauze. Electric lamps give light in many mines, but they can seldom be used near to the place where the actual work of breaking down the coal is in progress.
       
Nearly all mines are supplied with fresh air by means of great pumps and fans which blow fresh air to all parts of the mine, thus ridding it of foul gases of all kinds, due to the breath of the workmen, decomposition of the coal, explosion of powder in blasts and other causes.

       当煤块被经验的煤工人矿井中凿下时,会被其他助手装入到矿车中。这些矿车在小型的轨道运行,而照片中的矿场则用小型电力火车头将矿车拉出矿井,而火车头的动力石油车顶的天线提供的。骡子之前专门用于拉煤车,现在仍然在某些矿井中继续使用。煤矿被运出矿井后被送往筛煤场,而烟煤直接被铁道的矿车中铁路主干线上往往会直接修几条支线,直奔大型的矿场。美国有几条路主要的业务就是煤炭运

       并不是所有的矿井都会像照片中的矿井位于这么方便的位置。在这里煤沿山坡露出地表而且几乎是水平方向延伸,这样矿车只需要在一个水平上行。有些煤层位于地下深,只能通过竖井抵达。在这样的矿井,先装入矿车,再用升降梯吊到地面。

       帽子外露的灯泡说明照片里的矿井通风良好。有些井有危的爆炸气体(“沼气“),工必使用安全灯。在些灯中,火焰被铁丝网包井都有灯照明,但在将煤分解的工作区域附近却很少能使用它

       几乎所有的矿井都是通过大型气泵和风机将新鲜的空气吹到矿井的各个部分,从而排出由于矿工的呼吸、煤的分解、爆炸中的粉末等原因而产生的各种恶臭秽浊气体。



33.《开采烟煤》美国宾夕法尼亚州

MINING BITUMINOUS COAL

      PENNSYLVANIA

       This photograph shows a coal miner and his helper at work in a tunnel. The miner is using a compressed-air drill to drive a hole in the lower edge of the working face of the coal vein. The compressed air is supplied through the hose which is fastened to the machine. Charges of powder will be exploded in several such holes at one time, loosening a large mass of coal. Coal is generally loosened from its place in the vein by “undercutting” and "breaking down". In this way it can be taken out in larger pieces than when the work proceeds from above downward.
       
Coal mines were formerly worked entirely by hand. The miners used picks and shovels to break down the coal and load it on cars. Holes for blasts were bored with hand drills instead of by machinery.
       
At the present time coal mining machines of many types do a great deal of the work more rapidly than it can be done by hand, and in addition, less coal is broken into small pieces and wasted, than by the older method. Some of the coal mining machines are driven by compressed air and some by electric power.
       
The coal will be loaded on mine cars which run on the narrow track seen in the foreground, and thus it will be taken to the main shaft and then to the surface of the ground. In some mines the cars are drawn by electric mine locomotives, but in most mines they are hauled by mules.
       
That this mine is well ventilated is shown by the naked lamps to be seen on the miners' hats. Some mines have in them dangerous explosive gases (" fire-damp") which make it necessary for the miners to use safety lamps. In these lamps, the flame is surrounded by wire gauze. Electric lamps give light in many mines, but they can seldom be used near to the place where the actual work of breaking down the coal is in progress.
       
Nearly all mines are supplied with fresh air by means of great pumps and fans which blow fresh air to all parts of the mine, thus ridding it of foul gases of all kinds, due to the breath of the workmen, decomposition of the coal, explosion of powder in blasts and other causes.
       
Enormous quantities of timber are used in mines to give support to the roofs of the tunnels and to prevent the rock falling down from above. In addition to this, great masses of coal are left as supports. It is very dangerous work to remove these “pillars" of coal, and where they have been taken away, cave-ins have sometimes occurred, affecting many acres of ground at the surface.
       
Pennsylvania is the leading state in this country in the production of bituminous coal, in addition to producing nearly all of the anthracite.

       这张照片显示,一位煤矿工人和他的助手在一条隧道里工作,矿工正在用压缩空气钻机在煤矿矿脉表面的下边缘钻孔,压缩空气是通过紧固在机器上的软管提供的。一次会在几个这样的孔内填装炸药,爆破后获得大量松动的煤。煤在矿道中,是通过“切割“和“分解”而获得的。比从上往下的方式开采,通过这种方式可以取出更大的煤块。

       煤矿以前完全是手工作业的,矿工们用镐和铲子把煤分解,然后装在车上。爆破用的孔,是用手钻而不是用机器钻的。

现在许多类型的采煤机比传统手采能更快地完成大量工作,而且更少的碎成小块的煤炭,浪费的煤也就较少。有些采煤机是由压缩空气驱动的,而另一些是靠电力驱动的。

       会被装载在矿车上,而矿车行驶在照片前方所见的狭窄轨道上。之后矿车将会行驶到主轨道,然后被送到地面。在有些矿场里,矿车是由电动机车头牵引的,但在大多数矿井里,它们是由骡子牵引的。

       矿工帽子外露的灯泡说明照片里的矿井通风良好。有些矿井有危险的爆炸气体(“沼气“),矿工必须使用安全灯。在这些灯中,火焰被铁丝网包围,许多矿井都有电灯照明,但在将煤分解的工作区域附近却很少能使用它们。

       几乎所有的矿井都是通过大型气泵和风机将新鲜的空气吹到矿井的各个部分,从而排出由于矿工的呼吸、煤的分解、爆炸中的粉末等原因而产生的各种恶臭秽浊气体。

       大量木材被用于矿井,用以支撑隧道顶部,并防止岩石从上面掉下来。除此之外,还留下了大量的煤作为支撑。拆除这些煤的“柱子”是非常危险的工作,在它们被拿走的地方,有时会发生塌陷,影响到地表上许多英亩的土地。

       除了生产几乎所有无烟煤外,宾夕法尼亚州也是这个美国烟煤生产的领头羊。



34.《油井》美国加州洛杉矶

OIL WELLS

LOS ANGELES, CALIFORNIA

       Petroleum is obtained from wells in various parts of the world.  Each well is simply a hole, only a few inches in diameter, bored in the earth, often to a depth of a thousand feet or more, although many wells are only a couple of hundred feet deep.  When a subterranean deposit of oil is found, many wells are usually sunk in the immediate district.  The derricks above the wells are then a peculiar and characteristic feature of the landscape.  These derricks support the machinery by which tools are lowered into or raised from the wells and the oil pumped out.

       This photograph shows part of an oil field in Los Angeles, California.  The production, while small in comparison with the enormous output of the Appalachian oil district, is still very considerable and is an important factor on the Pacific coast.  In oil fields, the crude oil is generally stored in tanks of which several small ones are seen in the picture.

       Crude petroleum is shipped by rail, sometimes in barrels and sometimes in tank cars; but, especially in the eastern part of the United States, nearly all of the oil is pumped from the wells to the refineries or the sea-board through great pipes (pipe lines), which run for hundreds of miles.  For convenience of shipment, most of the great refineries are located along the coast.

       At the refineries, the crude oil, as it comes from the well, is distilled and yields kerosene,

       coal oil, and similar illuminating oils, as well as fuel oils, naptha, benzine, gasoline, lubricating oils, paraffine, vaseline, etc.  The quality of crude petroleum varies in different localities.  The oils from the Appalachian and the Ohio-Indiana fields are of high grade and contain large percentages of illuminating oil, while the oils obtained in Texas and California yield but small percentages of kerosene and are used for fuel, replacing coal for locomotives, steamboats and industrial establishments.

       In the United States the leading oil producing states are Ohio, Texas, California, West Virginia, Pennsylvania and Indiana.

       Pennsylvania oil is of exceptionally high quality.

      Russia produces, in a small district near Baku, on the Caspian Sea, almost as much petroleum as is obtained in the entire United States, but, like the Texas and California oils, it is of low grade.

       Refined oil is shipped in this country by rail in barrels and in tank cars.  For shipment abroad, some oil is put in barrels, but large quantities both of crude and refined oils are shipped in bulk in tank steamers.  American kerosene oil is exported to all parts of the world.

       油井遍布全世界,加州的油井和世界各地的油井一样,每口井都只是开凿在地上的一个洞,直径只有几英寸,深度从几百英尺到一千多英尺不等。当隐藏在地下的油层被发现时,也意味着附近区域会挖出大量的油井。油井上的井架外形非常的独特,这些井架支撑着机器,工具通它从井中下降上升,油抽出。

       这张照片显示了加州洛杉矶一片油田,虽然与阿巴拉契亚油区巨大的产量相比,它的产量不多,但仍然时太平洋沿岸不可忽视的要素。在油田中,原油一般储存在油罐中,照片中可以找到几个小的。

       原油一般用铁路运输,有时装在桶里,有时装在油罐车里;但特别在美国东部,几乎所有的石油从油井里泵出后,通过大型输油管道运到炼油厂或海岸,这些管道长达数百英里。为了方便装船,大多数大型炼油厂都位于沿海地区。

       在炼油厂里,从油井中抽出的原油,会被提产生汽油、煤油、灯油、石、挥发油、燃油、润滑油、石蜡和凡士林等。不同地区的原油质量各不相同,来自阿巴拉契亚和俄亥俄-印第安纳州油田的油品质高一些,原油中含有灯油的比例高一些。而德州和加州产的原油只含有少量的煤油,其可以替代煤炭作为火车、蒸汽船和工业设施的燃料。

       美国主要的产油州是俄亥俄州、德州、加州、西弗吉尼亚州、宾夕法尼亚州和印第安纳州,夕法尼产的油品质最好

       苏联有一个靠近里海附近巴库港的小油区,其产量几乎相当于整个美国的石油产量,但就像德州和加州的石油一样,品质比较低。

       精炼完的石油装在桶里或者油罐车上,通过铁路运往整个美国。如果是运往国外,一部分会被放入桶中,但是大量的原油和精炼油都用油船运输的。美国的煤油就是这样出口到世界各地的。



35.《洗砂金》加拿大不列颠哥伦比亚省温哥华

WASHING GOLD

VANCOUVER BRITISH COLUMBIA

       Gold is found in nearly all parts of the world.  The greatest producing districts are in the United States, South Africa and Australia.

       Gold usually occurs in minute particles disseminated through rocks, gravels or sands.

       When it is found in solid rock, the ore is removed from the mine, crushed by powerful machines, and treated in one of many ways to separate the valuable metal.

       The placer deposits, consisting of sand and gravel, generally in the beds of streams, have been formed by the forces of nature, from the rock beds.  The material which forms the placers was brought down by running water from the mountains, and the pebbles and heavy particles were not carried so far toward the sea as were the finer particles of dirt and sand.  Wherever there was any obstruction in the stream, or a level place, or a bend, the water dropped the heaviest part of its load.  The gold, being much heavier than the sand in proportion to the size of the particles, tended to collect in the deepest parts of the streams, in the eddies and wherever the water ran slowly. 

       When gold is discovered in any country the placer deposits are those which are first worked. The reason for this is that no expensive machinery is necessary.  A man with no experience can soon learn to wash the gravel in a pan and where the deposit is rich in gold, he may, even in such a primitive way, make a fortune, as men have done in the past in California, Australia and Alaska. A tin basin, or pan, for washing gold is seen in the lower right hand corner of this picture.  In using it a few handfuls of gravel are put in the basin which is then filled with water from the stream. The fine dirt at once mixes with the water which is poured off and the basin is refilled several times.  Soon nothing but the pebbles and the heavy particles are left.  The larger pebbles are picked out and a circular motion is given to the pan by the miner. This allows all the heavy particles to collect in one corner of the pan.  Here the gold, if there be any in the gravel, will be found when the pebbles are scraped away.

       This prospector in Vancouver having found by panning, a promising bed of gravel alongside a stream, has built a “grissely” so that he can wash more gravel in a day than can be done in a basin. A little below the surface he finds the gravel. Loosening it with the pick, seen in the center of the photograph, he places a pile of it in the upper end of the short sluice box which is supported on the wooden horse.  On the far side of the apparatus, close to the stream, he has dug a little pit in order to have a pool of water convenient.  He dips up the water and pours it on the pile of gravel in the sluice box, thus washing it onto the A-shaped grating at its end.  This grating is made of iron rods which allow all the small particles to pass through while the large stones fall down on both sides.  Below the grating is another sloping sluice box through which the water and mud escape.  Strips of wood are fastened diagonally in the bottoms of the sluice boxes and the particles of gold on account of their weight are caught and held in these grooves or “riffles” and are not washed away by the running water.

       The separation of gold from gravel is conducted in very much more extensive apparatus than this, when it is possible to open up a large bed of “pay dirt”.  The general principle is usually much the same however, the sluiceways merely being longer and the water being supplied by a running stream or from a reservoir in the mountains.

       黄金遍布世界各地,最大的产区是在美国、南非和澳大利亚。

       金子通常是一颗颗微小颗粒的,藏在岩石、砾石或沙子里。

       坚硬的岩石中若发现金子,需要将矿石从矿井中开采出来,放在粉碎机里压碎,并以多种方式进行处理,最终分离出有价值的金属。

       黄金砂矿的矿床中还有有沙子和砾石,一般位于河床里,是由于自然的力量从岩床形成的。形成砂矿的原料从山上顺水而下,其中鹅卵石和比较沉的颗粒将不会像比较细的土或沙子一样,最终被送入大海。只要此时溪流中任何的障碍物,比如不平的溪道,或者一处弯道,溪流将会将最沉的物质遗留下来。黄金,相较于沙子中其它同尺寸物质较为沉重,往往沉淀在溪流的最下面,尤其在漩涡或者溪流流速较慢的地区

       在任何国家,当发现黄金以后,黄金砂矿床往往是第一被选择淘金地点。因为在这里并不需要事前投资购进昂贵的挖矿机械。一个没有任何经验的人,在富含黄金砂矿的河床中很快就可以学会如何从沙砾中淘出黄金,从而成为富裕的人。这样的故事之前在加州、澳大利亚和阿拉斯加都有上演。照片右下角可以看到用于淘沙的盆或平底锅。抓几把沙砾放入淘中,盛满溪中的水摇晃一下。比较细的沙土将会与水混合在一起,然后倒掉。这样的步骤重复几次,最终剩下的就是鹅卵石与较重的颗粒。将鹅卵石挑出,然后圆形的摇晃盘,这样比较重的颗粒将会在盘的一角聚集。如果沙砾中富含黄金,就可以从中捡取金子了。

       照片中来自温哥华的一位探矿者正在一处被允许用于采金的溪边用淘盘淘金。他搭建了一套淘金的设施,比手动摇淘盘洗完更多的沙砾。他从比较浅的地下挖出了沙砾。照片中央泄水糟的上方闭口的一端被木马支撑着。照片中泄水糟另一端靠近溪流的地上被探矿者挖了一个水坑,方便取水。从水坑里汲取一勺子的水倒到泄水糟中的沙砾上,沙砾被清洗进入另一端的A字形的格栅笼中。A字形的格栅笼一般是由铁棍制成的,允许小的颗粒流过,而大的石头将会从两侧滚落。格栅笼下是另一个倾斜的泄水糟,用于将水和污泥流出。格栅笼下面有一个木头开槽被紧紧的斜对角的固定在泄水糟底端,这样由于金粒的重量原因会在开槽中大量的聚集,而不是被水冲走。

       除此之外,只要一片富含含金矿土的河床被开放,如何将金子从沙砾中分离出来还有很多其它设备。原理都差不多,不同的仅仅是更长的泄水槽,或者淘金的水是通过流动的溪流或山中的水库。



36.《拖运原木》加拿大不列颠哥伦比亚省温哥华

HAULING LOGS

VANCOUVER, BRITISH COLUMBIA

       This photograph of a logging scene shows the methods of cutting and hauling timber in the forests of British Columbia.  The oxen are hitched to the logs by chains and driven by a man locally known as the “bull puncher", who holds a high position in the camp. 

       There are various other means employed to transport the logs.  Whenever a large river is close by, the logs are hauled to it and floated down, generally rafted together.  Often donkey engines or light logging railroads haul them to the river. 

       In the northern states, where snow is plentiful all the logging is done in winter, because much larger loads can be hauled over the snow on sleds.  When there are no rivers near by, the hauling is now generally done by railroads. 

       The tall stumps, often seen in the western forests where timber has been cut, indicate a striking contrast in cutting methods to the plan usually pursued in the eastern part of the United States.  In the east, timber is cut as close to the ground as possible, in order to get the most lumber out of a tree.  Generally the trees on the Pacific coast are cut high to reach a narrower portion of the trunk, which is more easily worked and of a better quality than at a short distance from the ground.  Such stumps are seen in the center of the picture. 

       The whole lumber industry may be found conveniently divided into three departments, although two or all of them may be found in the same establishment.  These are the logging, the sawing and the planing.  The trees are felled in the forest, trimmed, cut into logs and transported to a sawmill. 

       In the sawmill the logs are cut up into rough lumber, such as beams, joists, scantlings, boards, shingles, laths, etc. 

       In the planing mill the rough lumber is planed to thickness, edged, ripped on smaller saws and manufactured into sash, doors, wainscoting, flooring, turnings, stair work, and by special machines into a great variety of different articles. 

       British Columbia, in the southwestern part of British America, is one of the richest sections of Canada.  Its greatest sources of wealth are its mines.  Next in importance are the forests.  British Columbia possesses the greatest compact area of merchantable timber on the North American continent.  As far north as Alaska the coast is heavily timbered, the forest line following the coast and fringing the mountain sides.  The total cut of timber exceeds 125,000,000 feet per annum.  There are several kinds of wood cut, the most important being Douglas fir.

       这张伐木场景的照片,显示了在不列森林中砍伐和运输木材的方法。牛被链子拴在原木上,被“牛仔”牵着走。

       还有有其它方法用来运送原木。如果靠近一条大河的话,原木被成木排,由小型蒸汽机或轻型铁路进水中顺流直下

       在美国北部各州,那里积雪充足。所有的伐木工作都是在冬天进行的,因为可以用雪橇拖着在雪地里走。当附近没有河流时,运输通常由铁路来完成。

       那些高大的树桩,通常是从美国西部森林中砍伐的,在采伐方法上与在东部有着惊人的不同。在东部木材被砍得离地面越近越好,这样才能从树上得到最多的木材。但在西太平洋沿岸的树木开采,都是从高得多的部分进行砍伐的。这样砍伐的部位比较细,更加容易操作,木材质量也更好。就如同照片中间所示的。

       伐木业可以方便的分为三种分工,虽然其中两种或全部都可以在一家企业中看到,分别是伐木,锯木和刨木。树木在森林中被砍伐,修剪并砍成原木,运到锯木厂的锯齿上。

       原木被切割成粗糙的木材,如横梁、托梁、构件、板材、屋顶板和板条等。

       在刨机中,粗糙的木材被刨成有厚度的、有边的板材,然后被加工成窗框、门、墙板、地板、木屑、楼梯等。然后再通过专业的机器制作成大量不同的物品。

       不列颠哥伦比亚省位于英属美洲西南部,是加拿大最富有的地区之一,它最大的财富来源是它的矿藏,其次是森林。它拥有北美大陆上最大的可供销售的木材资源,如阿拉斯加北部一样,海岸边陆地上的森林被大量砍伐,森林线紧跟在海岸线环绕着山腰,每年总采伐量超过1260万英尺,其中最重要的是道格拉斯冷杉。



37.《制作玉米饼》墨西哥

MAKING TORTILLAS

MEXICO

       Indian corn or maize (Zea mays, Gramineae) is the most important cereal of Mexico as well as of the United States. In Prehistoric times, maize was, to many Indian tribes, the symbol of plenty, and the planting and harvesting were attended with symbolic dances and religious ceremonies. 

       North American Indians, Cliff Dwellers, Aztecs, Incas, and other races, all ground up the grain, some in stone mortars and some on “ mutates ” as this Indian woman in modern Mexico is doing.

       Mexico exports no corn, but imports considerable quantities from the United States. Nevertheless the total corn crop of Mexico is very large. The consumption is proportionally larger

       than in the United States, because a larger proportion of Mexicans use corn as one of their staple foods.

       Tortillas are the bread of the “ peons ” or common people. In making the “ tortilla ”, corn is first soaked in lime water, which loosens the hull, and is then ground for some time on a “metate”, a curved or flat stone slab. On this, it is rolled with a stone, shaped much like a rolling pin. In this photograph the younger woman is grinding corn on a metate. Small pieces of the dough are worked between the hands, tossed and patted and flattened out, until no thicker than a knife blade, after which they are thrown upon a hot “ comal ”, a flat iron affair something like a griddle, one of which is shown in the center of the picture. The cakes are never allowed to brown and are without salt or seasoning of any kind.

       The photograph is typical of life among the native Indians and half-breeds of Mexico. It shows us a scene in the chaparral district in summer time. All the cooking is done out of doors. The fuel consists of dry branches, chiefly from the mesquite tree;and a few crude earthen pots constitute the kitchen outfit. The blanket hung up on the tree to the left is the steady companion of the Mexican. The man leaning against the mesquite tree, wears a sombrero, the characteristic Mexican hat.

Maize was entirely unknown in Europe before the discovery of America, and the name corn was a general term which meant grain, including wheat, rye, oats, barley, millet, etc.

       Corn is raised now in all parts of the world where it will mature. In production of corn the United States exceeds all the rest of the world combined. Illinois and lowa are our principal corn states, while Kansas, Nebraska, Missouri, Indiana, Ohio and Texas also produce large amounts。

       玉米(学名:Zea mays,禾本科)是墨西哥和美国最重要的谷物。在史前时代的美国,对许多印地安人来说,它是富足的象征,种植和收割时都要举行象征性的舞蹈和宗教仪式。

       北美印第安人,崖居民,阿兹特克人,印加人,和其他种族的人,都会将谷物磨碎有的在石里,有的在磨石上,就像代墨西哥的印第安妇女所做的那

       墨西哥不出口,反而会从美国进口大量的玉米。尽管墨西哥玉米种植也很发达,但是与美国相比,墨西哥人的消费比例更大,因为更多的墨西哥人用玉米作为他们的主要食品。

       玉米烙饼是苦工和普通老百姓的面包。在制作“玉米烙”的过程中,玉米首先被浸透在石灰水中,软化其外皮,然后在一片凹陷或扁平的磨盘上磨碎。在这上面玉米会被一个像擀面棒样的石头碾过。在这张照片中一个年轻的女人正在磨上碾玉米,一小块生面团将会用手加工,通过摔打以及拍打来展平,直至比一片刀片还要薄。丢在照片中间,加热的像平底锅一样的烤盘上烘烤。这些饼子绝不能让它变成棕色,而且不添加任何盐或其它任何调料。

       这张照片,是典型的墨西哥土著印第安人和混血儿生活,展示了在灌木丛地区夏季是如何生活的。所有的烹饪都是在室外进行的,燃料主要是干燥的牧豆树枝,天然的陶器作为厨房用具。左边挂在树上的毯子,是墨西哥人不离身的物品。靠在那棵牧豆树的那个男人,戴着墨西哥阔边这是一种典型的墨西哥帽子。

在发现美洲大陆之前,玉米在欧洲是完全不为人所知的。玉米是一个通称,意为谷物,包括小麦、黑麦、燕麦、大麦、小米等。

       现在全世界只要玉米能成熟的地区,玉米就会被种植。美国的玉米产量超过世界其它地区的总和,伊利诺伊州和爱荷华州是主要玉米基地,堪萨斯、内布拉斯加州、密苏里州、印第安纳州、俄亥俄州和德克萨斯州也生产大量玉米。



38.《开采银矿石墨西哥瓜纳华托州赛丽娜矿场

MINING

SIRENA MINE, GUANAJUATO, MEXICO

       This photograph, taken in one of the great silver mines in Mexico, shows very clearly the primitive methods employed in getting out ore, even at the present day.  The native laborers,

       work by the dim and uncertain light of candles which are stuck in angles of the rock along the working face of the vein.  With chisels and sledge hammers they break down the rock, starting at the bottom and working upward toward the roof of the tunnel.  This is almost always easier than to work from above downward.  Occasional small blasts of powder or dynamite help along the work.  English speaking miners would say that the Mexican laborers are breaking down ore in a stope, this being the name applied to such a working face.

       In mining, the vein of ore is generally reached by a perpendicular shaft from which horizontal tunnels lead off.  In Mexico the mines are more generally worked on what is there

       called a "sistema de rato" or rat's plan—that is to say, burrowing after the vein wherever it leads.

      In some Mexican mines the work is done in a less primitive way and power drills are used to drive holes in the rock for blasts.  It is, however, often more economical to get out the ore in a very laborious fashion on account of the cheapness of labor and the high price of coal needed to run machinery.  The miners are well paid if they receive fifty cents a day, and coal is worth more than twenty dollars a ton.

       Ore veins are generally narrow, and it is necessary to remove large amounts of valueless

       rock in order to get out a comparatively small amount of ore.  To avoid unnecessary labor the

       material which is loosened from its place in the earth is sorted over and the parts which seem valuable are carefully separated and carried to the surface, as much as possible of the valueless rock being left underground.

       Silver ore as it comes from the mine is usually not at all attractive to the eye.  Only very rarely does the silver show itself in the form of minute scales or small wires and it is generally combined chemically with other substances so that its presence would be suspected only by one acquainted with ores.

       Mexico is, next to the United States, the greatest silver producing country of the world. Some of the rich deposits were worked even before the time of the Spanish conquest and the great wealth of the country in silver and gold was the chief cause for their invasion.  Hundreds of treasure ships loaded with bars of silver went from Mexico to Spain in the early days.  Some of the mines are of almost fabulous richness, one having produced silver to a value of over one hundred million dollars.
       
Guanajuato is one of the chief centers of the silver mining industry in Mexico.

       这张照片是在墨西哥一座大型银矿中拍摄的,非常清楚地展示了开采矿石所采用的原始方法,甚至在今天也是如此。土生土长的工人们,在微弱而不稳定的蜡烛光下工作。蜡烛沿着开采面,放置在岩石的缝隙间。他们用凿子和锤子砸碎岩石,从底部开始往上,朝隧道的顶部开采,这样会比从上往下开采容易很多。在开采中,偶尔会用火药或炸药进行小爆破。会说英语的矿工说墨西哥工人都在台阶形采掘面上敲矿石,而台阶形采掘面就是根据其工作表面来命名的。

       到有矿石的深度一般由垂直井到达,然后水平隧道从井引出。墨西哥的矿井一般都是按照所谓的“老鼠计划”掘进的,也就是说挖掘工作不管那个方向,是沿着矿石的纹路前进。

       有些墨西哥矿场并没有照片中这么原始,会使用电钻在岩石上挖洞用于爆破。然而如何更加经济的矿石运出矿洞,则会选择廉价的人力搬运方式,因为机械搬运则需要消耗昂贵的煤炭用于提供动力。矿工每天得到50美分的丰厚报酬,但煤的价值却是每吨20美元以上。

       矿洞一般较窄,而且为了取出相对较小的矿石,必须移开大量的无价值岩石。为了避免不必要的劳动,他们会把从岩壁上凿下来的材料重新分类,将似乎有价值的部分仔细地重新区分后搬运到地表面,尽可能多地将无价值的岩石留在地下。

       刚被开采的银矿石通常看起来一点也不吸引人,只有很少的情况下,银才以微小的鳞片或状的形式出现,一般它都是与其它化学物质混合在一起。因此只有熟练矿石的人,能辨识它的存在。

       墨西哥仅次于美国,是世界上最大的银生产国。一些含量高的银矿,在被西班牙征服之前就已经开始开采了,而这个国家的巨大财富——白银和黄金,是他们遭受入侵的主要原因。早些时候上百条船运载着银条从墨西哥回到西班牙。许多矿主极其富有,开采了超过100万美金的白银。

       瓜纳华托州是墨西哥主要的银矿开采地之一。



39.《可可果实加工》牙买加

OPENING CACAO FRUITS

      JAMAICA

       Cocoa and chocolate are made from the seeds of a small tree (Theobroma cacao, Slerculiaceae) which grows in the tropics. 
       
This picture shows one of the trees with a few fruits hanging on the large branches. Negro women seated under the tree are opening the fruits. They cut them with large knives, called "machetes", and take out the seeds together with the pulp in which they are imbedded. This is seen in the baskets on the ground. The seeds with the pulp surrounding them are left lying for a few days so that the pulp ferments or partly decays. Then the pulp is washed away. The clean seeds, each of which is perhaps an inch long, and three-eighths of an inch thick, are dried, usually in the sun, but sometimes by artificial heat. 
       
Cacao beans are roasted, ground to a powder, and made into cakes to form chocolate. For sweet chocolate, sugar and vanilla are added. Cacao beans are rich in a fatty oil which is partly removed when cocoa powder is manufactured.
       
Cacao beans are cultivated in most tropical countries.  The principal exporting countries are Ecuador, Venezuela, and Trinidad.
       
The picture shows two other negro women standing under a young banana tree, with large baskets on their heads, filled with cacao fruits. These they have just brought from near-by trees to be opened. This fashion of carrying things on the head is common to negroes in almost all countries. Negro women often tie a cloth around the head, like those in the picture.

       可可和巧克力是由一种小(学名:Theobroma cacao,草科)的种子制成的,生长在热带。

       图中一棵比较大的可可树分支上挂着几个不多的果实,树下坐着两个黑人妇女正在打开可可果。他们用“大砍刀”大刀把它们切开,然后把种子连同它们的果肉一起取出,地上的篮子里盛着的就是。然后将它们留放几天,以使外面的果肉发酵或部分腐烂,用水冲走,剩下干净的种子。每颗种子大概有一英寸长,八分之三英寸厚,通常会在太阳下晒干的,但有时会通过人工加热的方式干燥。

       之后干燥的可可豆会被烘烤,磨成粉末,然后制成巧克力。甜巧克力需加糖和香草。可可豆富含脂肪油,在可可粉生产过程中会被部分去除。

可可豆在大多数热带国家种植,主要出口国是厄瓜多尔、委内瑞拉和特立尼达。

       图中另外两位黑人妇女站在一棵小香蕉树下,头顶着大篮子,装满了可可果。这些是她们刚从附近的树上采摘的,带来准备开果。这种携带物品的方式,在所有国家的黑人中是很常见的。黑人妇女经常在头上绑一块布,就像图片中的那样。



40.《结果子的可可树》特立尼达岛

CACAO TREE IN FRUIT

TRINIDAD

       The cacao tree (Theobroma cacao, Sterculiaceae) is a native of northwestern South America. It is cultivated as far south as Peru on the west coast, and as far as Bahia, Brazil, on the east coast and north through Mexico and the West Indies. It is grown also in Ceylon, Mauritius, and other islands of the Indian Ocean, Java and other parts of the East Indies, Porto Rico, Hawaii and the Philippines. The rather small tree, seldom reaching more than twenty feet in height, is often grown in the protecting shade of larger trees. Leaves, flowers and fruits are borne at all seasons of the year. In the West Indies there are two principal harvests, one in June and a more abundant one in December.

       The fruits are borne on the trunk of the tree and on the larger branches and when ripe are six to ten inches in length, of a yellowish or purplish color. Each contains fifty to seventy-five seeds or cacao beans enclosed in a pinkish-white, edible pulp.

       This photograph, taken in the island of Trinidad, shows the trunks and large branches of two cacao trees. The fruits show plainly, their short stems growing out directly from the branches and the trunk, some of them even down near the root of the tree.

       The laborer and the child seen in the picture are coolies from India. Many thousands of these people come from India to Trinidad and Jamaica to work on the plantations. They are generally brought over, under contract for a term of years and at the expiration of their time, most of them return home.

The man has in his hand a machete. These large knives are very common tools in most hot countries. Laborers in the West Indies use them for cutting sugar cane and bananas, for cutting down weeds and sometimes even for chopping off small trees.

       When the Spanish, under Cortez, conquered Mexico they found the Aztecs using cacao beans to make a beverage called “chocolatl” which, with its delightful flavor and aroma and its remarkable stimulating and nourishing qualities, came at once into high favor among the invaders. It was introduced into Spain by Cortez and within about a hundred years came into general favor in Europe. Tea and coffee were not introduced into Europe until later.

       The Aztecs valued the beans so highly that the emperor Montezuma had an immense storehouse for them, and they were commonly used as one form of money. This custom still prevails among certain Indian tribes in the interior of Guatemala, where cacao beans are common currency. The scientific name of the tree, Theobroma, means “Food for the gods.”

       In popular and commercial language it is necessary to be careful, for fear of confusing several articles the names of which are similar. Cacao beans, the seeds of the cacao tree, are very generally known as cocoa beans, and the tree is called the cacao tree. Cocoa and chocolate are prepared from these seeds. The familiar cocoanut is the product of an entirely different tree (the cocoanut palm), and coca or cocaine is extracted from coca leaves which are obtained from still another tree.

       可可树(学名:Theobroma Ara,梧桐科)原产于南美洲西北部,最南边能达到秘鲁西海岸,东至巴西的巴伊亚省海岸,北至墨西哥和西印度群岛。它还生长在斯里兰卡、毛里求斯和印度洋其它岛屿、爪哇和其它东印度群岛、波多黎各、夏威夷和菲律宾。可可树相当矮小,很少超过二十英尺高,通常生长在大树的树荫下。叶子、花朵和果实在一年四季都可以生长。在西印度群岛每年可收获两次,一次在六月,收获更多的一次在十二月。

       果实生长在树干和比较大的树枝上,成熟时长六到十英寸,呈黄色或紫色。每颗含有50至75个种子或可可豆,包在粉白色的可食用果肉中。

这张照片摄于特立尼达岛,展示了两棵可可树的树干和大的枝条。结的果子很明显,它们的柄直接从树枝和树干上长出来,有些甚至在树根附近。

图中的工人和孩子是来自印度的苦力。成千上万的人从印度来到特立尼达和牙买加,在种植园工作。他们通常是被带过来的,合同期限为几年,到期后大多数人会回家。

       照片中的人手里拿着一把砍刀。在大多数炎热的国家,这种大刀是很常见的工具。西印度群岛的工人们用它们砍甘蔗、香蕉、杂草,有时甚至砍掉小树。

当西班牙人在科尔特斯的领导下征服墨西哥时,他们发现阿兹特克人用可可豆制作了一种名为“巧克力”的饮料,这种饮料以其令人愉悦的风味和香气,以及非凡的刺激性和营养性,立刻在入侵者中得到了高度的青睐。科尔特斯将其引入西班牙,在大约一百年后在欧洲得到了普遍的青睐。茶和咖啡直到后来才传入欧洲。

       阿兹特克人非常重视这些豆子,以至于蒙特祖马皇帝有一个巨大的储藏室,而且它们通常被当作货币用。这一习俗在危地马拉内陆的某些印第安部落中仍然盛行,在那里可可豆是共同的货币。这棵树的学名是Theobroma,意思是“神的食物“。



41.《采摘咖啡》巴西

PICKING COFFEE

BRAZIL

       Commercial coffee is the seed of a small tree.  There are two cultivated varieties of this tree, the Arabian (Coffea arabica) and the Liberian (Coffea liberica, Rubiaceae).  The Arabian coffee tree was originally a native of Abyssinia and is now cultivated in all important coffee-producing countries.  Arabian coffee trees, in plantations, grow ordinarily about nine to twelve feet in height.  In some parts of the world, coffee trees are kept trimmed down and are not allowed to grow tall, but this is seldom done in America, where, as in the plantation seen in this photograph, the trees are generally allowed to grow freely.

       This picture shows a coffee picking scene on one of the large plantations of Brazil. The pickers are at work in the foreground and the plantation stretches away across the hills in the distance.  Behind the trees a large wagon stands, to which oxen are harnessed.  The mats spread out under the tree in the center are to prevent the berries dropping on the ground.  The pickers are often provided with flat baskets to suspend in front of them, and larger deep baskets or bags into which to empty the berries.  In some places the berries are simply shaken down on mats and gathered up.  The berries are then taken from the fields to be cleaned and dried.

       The ripe coffee berries are bright red, each one about the size of a cherry.  A soft outer pulp surrounds two yellow beans, lying with their flat sides together.  Each bean consists of a greenish kernel or seed enclosed successively by a very fine white skin (the “silver skin”) and a thick tough yellow covering known as the “parchment”.  The preparing of the beans on the plantations for shipment abroad begins with the bruising of the pulp and washing of the seeds.  These are then dried on large cement floors in the sun or less commonly by special drying machinery.  After drying, the seeds, which are still covered with the parchment, go through various machines which clean and polish them.
       
More than half of the world’s supply of coffee is grown in Brazil.  The remainder comes from various parts of tropical America and the East Indies. 

       商业咖啡豆的原料来自于一种小树的种子,这种树的品种来自两个地区——阿拉伯和利比里亚。阿拉伯咖啡原产于阿比西尼亚,现在种植在所有重要的咖啡生产国。阿拉伯咖啡树在野外通常高约9至12英尺,在世界上的一些种植园里,咖啡树会被修剪,不能长得很高,但在美洲却很少这样做。就像这张照片中所看到的那样,那里的树木一般可以自由生长。

       这张照片展示了来自于巴西一个大种植园采摘咖啡的场景,采摘者在照片的前方工作,而咖啡整齐的沿着山丘蔓延。树后有一马车架,牛被套在车前。咖啡树下铺了一张垫子,是为了防止浆果落在地上。采摘者通常会将扁平的篮子吊在他们身前,然后倒入更大更深的篮子或袋子中。有些地方则会简单地摇动咖啡树,然后将掉落在垫子上的浆果收集起来。采集好的浆果会被拿去清洗和干燥。

       成熟的咖啡浆果是鲜红色的,大小和樱桃差不多,一粒柔软的果肉中有两个黄色的豆子,两个豆子水平的一靠在一起。每一颗豆子内都有一粒绿色的种子,但被一层非常精细的白色的皮(“银皮”)和一层厚厚的皮(“内果皮”)的覆盖物所包裹。为了将种植园的咖啡豆子出口国外,会先在种植园将外面的果肉挫掉并清洗种。然后通常会在水泥地板上进行晒干,很少情况下会用机械烘干。最后仍然包裹着羊皮纸的干燥的咖啡种子,经过各种机器清洗和抛光。

       世界上一半以上的咖啡供应,都是来自于巴西。剩下的部分来自热带美洲和东印度群岛。



42.《晾晒咖啡豆》巴西

DRYING COFFEE

COSTA RICA

       Commercial coffee is the seed of a small tree. There are two cultivated varieties of this tree, the Arabian (Coffea arabica) and the Liberian (Coffea liberica, Rubiaceae). The Arabian coffee tree was originally a native of Abyssinia and is now cultivated in all important coffee producing countries. Brazil supplies three-fourths of the coffee used in the world, but large quantities are raised in other tropical countries also.

       The ripe fruits of the coffee tree resemble cherries in size and shape. They are of a bright scarlet color and grow clustered along the branches. In the berries, two yellow seeds or "beans" lie with their flat sides toward each other and enclosed in a pulp. Each bean or seed is covered first with a very thin membrane (the “silver skin”) and then with a thick, tough skin (the "parchment"). After the berries are picked from the branches, these coverings must be removed.

       In a few parts of the world, the berries are first dried and then the hardened outer shells are broken away. The following, however, is the more usual method. The coffee berries are carried from the fields to the "pulper", a machine in which the pulp is roughly crushed and washed away. Some pulp still adheres to the seeds. They are therefore washed in a large cistern such as is shown in the foreground of this photograph and left for two or three days to ferment. In this way the remaining particles of pulp become loose and can be washed off in the next cistern. During the washing, the dirty water is repeatedly drawn off, until the coffee beans, now covered by the tough yellowish parchment, are perfectly clean.

       The parchment coffee must be dried at once. On a well-equipped coffee plantation there are usually large cement floors, like those seen in the picture, where the coffee can be dried in the sun. On these large floors, “patios” as they are called, the beans are spread out. They are raked over from time to time in order that they may dry rapidly and uniformly.  Depending on the weather, the coffee dries in from ten to twenty days.

       To protect the beans from rain or dew, they are sometimes heaped up and covered over with large palm mats such as may be seen in this picture. In places where rains are frequent during the coffee harvest, the beans are dried on floors protected by roofs or else in drying machines, artificially heated.

       The dry coffee, covered with the parchment, is run through cleaning machines. The first one is a huller which crushes and winnows away the parchment. The next machine, a polisher, rubs off the thin underlying silver skin. These two machines are often combined into one.

       The thoroughly cleaned coffee, after being put in sacks, is ready for shipment.

       Before it can be used it must be roasted and ground. This is generally done only a short time before it is to be used.

       商业咖啡豆的原料来自于一种小树的种子,这种树的品种来自两个地区——阿拉伯和利比里亚。阿拉伯咖啡原产于阿比西尼亚,现在种植在所有重要的咖啡生产国。巴西供应世界上四分之三的咖啡,但其他热带国家也大量生产咖啡。

       成熟的咖啡树果实大小和形状与樱桃相似,它们呈猩红色,一簇簇的沿着树枝生长。一粒柔软的浆果中有两个黄色的豆子,两个豆子水平的一侧靠在一起。被包裹在果肉中的每一颗豆或种子首先被一个非常薄的膜(“银皮”)覆盖,然后被用厚厚的、坚硬的皮(“内果皮”)覆盖。当浆果从树枝上摘下来后,这些覆盖物必须被移除。

       在世界上的一些地方,浆果首先进行干燥,然后硬化的外壳被打破,这是比较常见的方法。咖啡浆果是从地里运到“纸浆机”中,在这台机器里,果肉被粗略地碾碎和冲走。一些果肉仍然附着在种子上,因此它们被放如照片前方所示的一个蓄水池中继续清洗,然后留在里面发酵两到三天。这样剩下的果浆颗粒就会软化,在下一个蓄水池中被清洗掉。在洗咖啡豆的过程中,脏水会被反复抽走,直到咖啡豆表面被坚硬的黄色内果皮所覆盖,完全干净。

       覆盖着内果皮的咖啡豆必须立刻干燥。在设施完善的咖啡种植园里,通常有大型水泥晾晒场。就像在图片中看到的那样,咖啡可以在阳光下被晒干。在这些被称为“天井”的大地板上,豆子被散开,且不时地被木耙翻来翻去,以便迅速而均匀地干燥。取决于天气,咖啡一般在十到二十天内就会完全干燥。

       为了保护豆子不受雨水和露水的影响,它们有时会被堆积起来,并覆盖在大的棕榈垫下,就像在这张图片中所看到的那样。在咖啡收获期间经常下雨的地方,咖啡豆会在有屋顶的地板上干燥的,或者是在烘干机里烘干的。

       覆盖着内果皮的咖啡豆需要经过好几种机器清理。第一种是清洗机,先将内果皮压碎然后吹走。下一台是一台打磨机,擦去薄的银皮。这两台机器经常被合并成一台。

       彻底清洗过的咖啡放进袋子后,就可以装船了。

       在饮用之前,生咖啡豆必须经过烘烤与研磨,通常是其准备被使用之前的一小段时间内执行的。



43.《咖啡树》哥斯达黎加

COFFEE TREE

COSTA RICA

       Commercial coffee is the seed of a small tree. There are two cultivated varieties of this tree, the Arabian (Coffea arabica) and the Liberian (Coffea liberica, Rubiaceae). The Arabian coffee tree was originally native in Abyssinia and is now cultivated in all important coffee-producing countries. The Liberian coffee tree originated on the west coast of Africa. It is a somewhat larger tree of sturdier growth, but is not so widely cultivated as the Arabian variety.

       Arabian coffee trees, in plantations, grow ordinarily about nine to twelve feet in height; the Liberian variety grows somewhat taller. Coffee of good flavor is raised most successfully on highlands in the tropics.

       The white blossoms of the coffee tree grow clustered along the branches and are succeeded by the green, immature fruit. When ripe, each fruit is red, resembling a cherry in size and color. The berries contain two seeds, each covered first by a thin membrane (the “silver-skin”), then by a thick, tough skin (the “parchment” or “cascara”), and the whole enclosed in a pulp which holds the two beans or seeds with their flat sides together. Some berries, growing on the same plants as the others, contain but one bean, which is round instead of flat. These round beans are preferred by many and are therefore sorted out and sold separately as “pearl” or “peaberry” coffee.

       When ripe, the berries are picked from the trees by hand. The preparing of the beans on the plantations for shipment abroad begins with the bruising and washing away of the pulp. The seeds are then dried on large cement floors in the sun or less commonly by special drying machinery. After drying, the seeds, which are still covered with the parchment, go through a machine which cleans and polishes them. There are very many commercial grades of coffee, and almost all of them have been named after the country or district in which that grade was at one time most largely grown. Mocha coffee, for instance, which comes from many countries, received its name from Mocha, in Arabia. Now, however, the names of famous coffee districts are used very largely by coffee growers of many countries for their own product, even if that only faintly resembles the grade indicated. Coffee merchants, therefore, do not buy by name, as that signifies nothing to them, but by appearance and actual tests of flavor.

       Different countries have different tastes and preferences. The United States prefers smallsized coffee beans, Europe prefers the larger sizes; the product of one district may be prized highly in one country and neglected in another. An even, dark-greenish color, and an aroma free from any strong after-flavor are everywhere considered marks of a first-class coffee.

       Coast Rica produces coffee of fine quality. The plantations are mostly on the Gulf slopes of the mountains, on fertile lands. They are usually managed in an efficient manner.

       More than half of the world’s supply of coffee is grown in Brazil. The rest comes from various parts of tropical America and the East Indies.

       咖啡豆的原料来自于一种小的种子,的品种来自两个地区――阿拉伯和利比里。阿拉伯咖啡于阿比西尼在种植在所有重要的咖啡生。利比里亚的咖啡树原产于非洲的西海岸,它是一种稍大一些和更加结实的树,但没有阿拉伯品种那样被广泛种植。

       阿拉伯咖啡树在种植园里,通常长在9到12英尺高;利比里亚的品种长得更高一些。比较好口味的咖啡一般产于热带的高地上。

       咖啡树的白色花朵沿着树枝一簇簇的生,下面是是绿色的,不成熟的果实。成熟后,每个果实都是红色的,大小和颜色类似于樱桃。浆果含有两个种子,每个种子首先被一个薄膜覆盖(“银色”),然后是厚厚的硬皮(“内果皮”或“腰果”),两粒种子被包裹在一个果肉里,每粒豆子或种子的扁平侧依靠在一起。有些生长在同一棵树上的,只含有一粒豆子,它是圆的,而不是扁平的。这些圆豆更加受人喜欢,被挑选出来,单独以“珍珠咖啡”或“珠粒咖啡”的品种单独售卖。

       当咖啡果成熟后,浆果是从树上手工采摘的。在种植园准备运往国外的咖啡豆,首先是对果肉进行揉搓和清洗,然后将种子铺在水泥地板上晒干,或者用专业的机器烘干。干燥后的咖啡豆上还覆盖着内果皮,还需再经过一台清洗和抛光的机器。市场上的咖啡豆被分为了很多商业等级,几乎所有的等级都是以种植品种最多的国家或地区命名的。例如,来自许多国家的摩卡咖啡,是从阿拉伯的摩卡中获得了它的名字。现在很多著名的咖啡产区名字,被来自不同国家的咖啡种植者用在了他们自己的产品上,即使其品种只是有点点的相似。所以咖啡商不按照名称采购咖啡豆,因为这对他们没有任何意义,而是通过外观和实际的口味来做决定的。

       不同的国家有不同的品味和偏好,美国人更喜欢小点的咖啡豆,欧洲人更喜欢大尺寸的;一个地区的产品,可能在一个国家被高度重视,而在另一个国家却被忽视。一种均匀、深绿色的、不含任何香料的咖啡豆,在任何地方都会被认为是一流咖啡的标志。

       哥斯达黎加善于生产优质咖啡。这些种植园大多位于海湾附近肥沃的山坡上,通常是以有效的方式管理着。

       世界上一半以上的咖啡,都是在巴西种植的,其余的来自热带美洲和东印度群岛。



44.《晾晒可可豆》乌拉圭

DRYING CAOAO

TRINIDAD

       Cacao beans, from which chocolate and "cocoa" are made, are the seeds of a small tree, (Theobroma cacao, Sterculiaceae). The large pods, each of which contains from forty to eighty seeds, grow out from the stem and larger branches of the trees. 
       
In different countries the methods of preparing cacao beans for market vary greatly. The following is one of the most common. The pods are cut from the trees and piled in dry places for several days. The seeds are then taken out and again left in heaps for a number of days, until a definite degree of fermentation has taken place. This, it is said, improves the quality of the beans. The beans are often colored by coating them with red clay or some other red pigment, partly to keep off insects, and partly because red beans sell better than light colored ones. Next the beans are ready for drying, an operation which requires the greatest care. In most countries cacao beans are dried in the open air on hard smooth earth or on mats. Modern plantations build large cement drying floors, which may at any time be covered by roofs running on rollers, as seen in the picture.  On these large floors, called “patios" in tropical America, the beans are spread out thinly and raked over for at least ten days until they are perfectly dry. In places where the sunshine is not constant enough, artificial heat is employed. The dried beans are packed in sacks for shipment from the producer to the factory. In the factories where chocolate and cocoa are made, the beans are roasted, broken up, cleaned, ground and otherwise prepared.
       
Trinidad produces cacao of high quality, and many plantations on that island are managed in accordance with thoroughly up-to-date methods. The drying floors seen in this picture are built on foundations which raise them several feet above the ground. The roofs are so arranged that they can be slid over the drying floors at short notice in case of rain. The laborers who are at work turning over the beans are East Indian coolies.
       
The laborers in Trinidad are of two classes-negroes of African descent and Malay coolies from the East Indies, imported under contract for a term of years. These Malays, most of whom are Mohammedans, are an industrious class and at the expiration of their contracts not infrequently remain on the island and make good settlers.

       可可豆,用于制作巧克力和可可粉的原料,是由一种小(学名:Theobroma cacao,草科)的种子制成的。比较大的豆荚中可以含有40到80粒的种子,一般直接从树茎或比较大的分枝上长出。

       不用国家如何制豆的方法也不同,以下是最常见的方法。首先将豆荚从树上砍下来,堆在干燥的地方晾晒好几天,然后将种子取出来再次堆积数天,直到有一定程度的发酵。据说这可以提高豆类的质量。豆子通常被涂上红色黏土或其他红色素,一部分愿意是为了防止昆虫咬吃,另外一部分是因为红色的豆子比浅色的豆子卖得更好。接下来豆子就可以被干燥了,这是一个需要非常小心的操作步骤。在大多数国家,可可豆一般是在露天坚硬光滑的泥土或垫子上干燥的。现代化种植园会用水泥建造大型平台用于晾干,如图中所示,平台在任何时候都被移动的屋顶所覆盖。这些在热带美洲被称为“露台”的地板上,豆子被稀薄地摊开,并且被耙子不断地翻滚至少十天,直到它们完全干燥。在日照不够稳定的地方,也会采取人工加热的方式。干豆子会装在袋子里,从生产地运到工厂加工。在生产巧克力和可可的工厂里,可可豆会被清洗、烘烤、破碎、研磨和其他加工。

       特立尼达可生产高质量的可可豆,岛上的许多种植园都是按照最先进的方法经营。在这幅图片中,干燥的露台建在离地面几英尺高的地方,屋顶布置得很好,万一下雨,他们可以在很短的时间内将干燥的露台遮盖上。正在工作的工人们都是印度群岛的劳工

       特立尼达的工人有两个不同的来源,意识非洲裔的黑人和东印度群岛的马来人,他们是根据合同来这里的,合同期限为数年。这些马来人,其中大多数是伊斯兰教徒,是一个勤劳的阶级。在他们的合同到期后,他们常常会留在岛上,并成为好的定居者。